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BACKGROUND Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. Users report buying them to help quit smoking, to reduce cigarette consumption, to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms, and to continue having a 'smoking' experience, but with reduced health risks. Research on e-cigarettes is urgently needed in order to(More)
INTRODUCTION Omalizumab is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that selectively binds to free and membrane-bound immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. Omalizumab has been licensed for use in severe allergic asthma. A search on the website clinicaltrials.gov reveals there are currently 109 clinical trials with Omalizumab of which 46 are(More)
T lymphocytes of the Th2 type are central orchestrators of airway inflammation in asthma. The mechanisms that regulate their accumulation in the asthmatic airways remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that CCR4, preferentially expressed on T lymphocytes of the Th2 type, plays a critical role in this process. We enumerated by flow cytometry the(More)
AIM Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is a cytokine recognised as a therapeutic target in chronic inflammatory diseases. METHODS A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial is reported of etanercept (an IgG1-TNF p75 receptor fusion protein), administered once weekly for 12 weeks in 39 patients with severe corticosteroid(More)
BACKGROUND Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. Therefore, improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary. The electronic-cigarette (e-Cigarette), a battery-powered electronic nicotine delivery device (ENDD) resembling a cigarette, may help smokers to remain abstinent during their quit attempt or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy(More)
Electronic cigarettes (e-Cigarette) are battery-operated devices designed to vaporise nicotine that may aid smokers to quit or reduce their cigarette consumption. Research on e-Cigarettes is urgently needed to ensure that the decisions of regulators, healthcare providers and consumers are evidence based. Here we assessed long-term effectiveness and(More)
As asthma becomes more severe it adopts additional characteristics including cortico-steroid refractoriness and a neutrophil-predominant inflammatory response implicating Th1 or Th17 responses involving cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor a, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. We have examined the role of IL-6 and IL-8 in severe asthma. Subjects with severe(More)
haematologica | 2008; 93(8) | 1275 | erozygous factor V Leiden. Haemophilia 2001;7:511-4. 11. Castoldi E, Govers-Riemslag JWP, Pinotti M, Biondini D, Tans G, Berrettini M, et al. Coinheritance of Factor V (FV) Leiden enhances thrombin formation and is associated with a mild bleeding phenotype in patients homozygous for the FVII 9726+5G>A (FVII Lazio)(More)
Antibiotics are commonly used in the management of respiratory disorders such as cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis, asthma and COPD. In those conditions long-term antibiotics can be delivered as nebulised aerosols or administered orally. In CF, nebulised colomycin or tobramycin improve lung function, reduce number of exacerbations and improve(More)
Current guidelines limit regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to a specific subgroup of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in whom the forced expiratory volume in 1 s is <60% of predicted and who have frequent exacerbations. In these patients, there is evidence that ICS reduce the frequency of exacerbations and improve lung(More)