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The three-dimensional culture of MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells on a reconstituted basement membrane results in formation of polarized, growth-arrested acini-like spheroids that recapitulate several aspects of glandular architecture in vivo. Oncogenes introduced into MCF-10A cells disrupt this morphogenetic process, and elicit distinct morphological(More)
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,(1) and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and(More)
Little is known about how the genotypic and molecular abnormalities associated with epithelial cancers actually contribute to the histological phenotypes observed in tumours in vivo. 3D epithelial culture systems are a valuable tool for modelling cancer genes and pathways in a structurally appropriate context. Here, we review the important features of(More)
We have utilized in vitro three-dimensional epithelial cell cultures to analyze the role of apoptosis in the formation and maintenance of a hollow glandular architecture. Lumen formation is associated with the selective apoptosis of centrally located cells; this apoptosis follows apicobasal polarization and precedes proliferative suppression during acinar(More)
Epithelial cells must adhere to the extracellular matrix (ECM) for survival, as detachment from matrix triggers apoptosis or anoikis. Integrins are major mediators of adhesion between cells and ECM proteins, and transduce signals required for cell survival. Recent evidence suggests that integrin receptors are coupled to growth factor receptors in the(More)
The protumorigenic functions for autophagy are largely attributed to its ability to promote cancer cell survival in response to diverse stresses. Here we demonstrate an unexpected connection between autophagy and glucose metabolism that facilitates adhesion-independent transformation driven by a strong oncogenic insult-mutationally active Ras. In cells(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced TOR signaling has been shown to significantly increase lifespan in a variety of organisms [1], [2], [3], [4]. It was recently demonstrated that long-term treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mTOR pathway[5], or ablation of the mTOR target p70S6K[6] extends lifespan in mice, possibly by delaying aging. Whether inhibition of the(More)
Blood production is ensured by rare, self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that mouse HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid(More)