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BACKGROUND Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae with resistance to carbapenem conferred by New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) are potentially a major global health problem. We investigated the prevalence of NDM-1, in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in India, Pakistan, and the UK. METHODS Enterobacteriaceae isolates were studied from two major(More)
BACKGROUND The global accumulation of Escherichia coli with CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases partly reflects the dissemination of clonal lineages, notably ST131 and ST405. More recently, E. coli have emerged that produce NDM carbapenemase. We sought to determine the clonal diversity of E. coli with this enzyme from English hospitals, and to compare them(More)
Few standardised data are available on mortality rates in patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The literature often reports 'attributable' mortality or cannot be universally applied. We aimed to investigate the pattern and trends in all-cause mortality in a large unselected cohort of patients affected by CDI. This was done by means of a(More)
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) has increased significantly in the last 15 years, but predictors of outcome are inadequately understood. This was a cohort study of 2761 patients in North East England between 2002 and 2009, with the end-point of mortality at 30 days. The role of age, gender and co-morbidities was examined by binary logistic(More)
The risk of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) in developing countries can exceed 25% compared to developed countries. Lack of awareness and institutional framework to deal with patient safety in general and HCAI in particular perpetuates the culture of acceptance of avoidable risks as inevitable. Most HCAIs are avoidable and can be prevented by(More)
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship is a key component in the reduction of healthcare-associated infections, particularly Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). We successfully restricted the use of cephalosporins and, subsequently, fluoroquinolones. From an endemically high level of >280 cases per year in 2007-08, the number of CDIs reduced to 72 cases in(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic stewardship is a key component in the effort to reduce healthcare-associated infections. AIM To describe the implementation and analyse the impact of fluoroquinolone restriction on resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, focusing on urinary isolates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, which were historically(More)
PURPOSE A point prevalence study was carried out in a teaching hospital in Assam to characterise S. aureus strains, establish the rate of colonisation of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and associated risk factors for its acquisition. MATERIALS AND METHODS Antibiogram-Resistogram profile was done by BSAC standardized disc sensitivity method; Phage(More)
We present a new model to analyse the spatial characteristics of the output beam of conventional (straight-stripe) and tapered superluminescent light-emitting diodes. The device model includes both spontaneous and stimulated emission processes as well as a nonuniform carrier density distribution to correctly represent current spreading and carrier diffusion(More)
PURPOSE A study was carried out in an Indian teaching hospital in 2009 to detect the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) and peripheral vascular access site infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was a point-prevalence study involving over 300 patients. The presence of infection was determined according to the CDC criteria. Swabs were taken from(More)