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BACKGROUND Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. METHODS The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian(More)
BACKGROUND UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants(More)
BACKGROUND Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the "six-week extended-dose nevirapine" (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention of breast-milk HIV transmission but who also acquired subtype C HIV(More)
An association between the personality trait of hardiness and immune responses was explored. Blood samples were collected from 21 healthy individuals under nonstressful conditions, who had either high or low levels of hardiness. Functional immune assays tested for natural killer (NK) cell activity and proliferation responses to Candida albicans (Candida),(More)
BACKGROUND The risk for occupational exposure to HIV has been well characterized in the developed world, but limited information is available about this transmission risk in resource-constrained settings facing the largest burden of HIV infection. In addition, the feasibility and utilization of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) programs in these settings are(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. METHODS Using data from a(More)
BACKGROUND India has among the highest rates of infant malnutrition. Few studies investigating the growth patterns of HIV-exposed infants in India or the impact of timing of HIV infection on growth in settings such as India exist. METHODS We used data from the Six Week Extended Nevirapine (SWEN) trial to compare the growth patterns of HIV-infected and(More)
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