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Few health care facilities are adequately prepared to manage and care for HIV/AIDS patients in India. Nurses play a critical role in patient care but are often ill-equipped to deal with their own fears of occupational risk and handle the clinical aspects of HIV/AIDS care, leading to stigma and discrimination toward HIV-positive patients. The authors examine(More)
BACKGROUND UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants(More)
Endogamous populations belonging to Brahmin, Vysya, Mala, and Madiga castes of Andhra Pradesh, South India, were investigated for certain red cell enzyme and serum protein genetic markers. Frequency values were statistically analyzed to assess genetic variation among the populations. Average heterozygosity of ten loci and genetic diversity within and(More)
BACKGROUND Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established. METHODS The study population was 783 HIV-infected Indian(More)
Access to safe breast-feeding alternatives for HIV-infected mothers and their infants in many settings is limited. We compared the rates of early postpartum hospitalization of infants born to HIV-infected mothers using different infant-feeding practices in a large government hospital in Pune, India. From March 1, 2000 to November 30, 2001, infants born to(More)
BACKGROUND In contrast with many other countries, isoniazid preventative therapy is not recommended in clinical care guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with latent tuberculosis (TB) in India. METHODS Seven hundred fifteen HIV-infected mothers and their infants were prospectively followed up for 1 year after delivery at a(More)
Anthropometric data collected on 18,938 preschool children (1-5 years) by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) in 10 states of the country were analysed for assessing growth status in terms of 'stunting' and 'wasting'. The results showed that the prevalence of stunting, reflective of chronic malnutrition, is of higher magnitude compared to(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. METHODS Using data from a(More)