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Expansion of GAA repeats in the intron of the frataxin gene is involved in the autosomal recessive Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). The GAA repeats arise from a stretch of adenine residues of an Alu element. These repeats have a size ranging from 7- 38 in the normal population, and expand to thousands in the affected individuals. The mechanism of origin of GAA(More)
Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) has antiviral functions and many viruses encode gene products that disrupt PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs). However, evidence of the relevance of PML NB modification for viral pathogenesis is limited and little is known about viral gene functions required for PML NB disruption in infected cells in vivo. Varicella-zoster(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes varicella and establishes latency in sensory nerve ganglia, but the characteristics of VZV latency are not well defined. Immunohistochemical detection of the VZV immediate-early 63 (IE63) protein in ganglion neurons has been described, but there are significant discrepancies in estimates of the frequency of IE63-positive(More)
The gene cluster composed of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 9 (ORF9) to ORF12 encodes four putative tegument proteins and is highly conserved in most alphaherpesviruses. In these experiments, the genes within this cluster were deleted from the VZV parent Oka (POKA) individually or in combination, and the consequences for VZV replication(More)
Despite antiviral prophylaxis, a high percentage (over 90%) of heart transplant patients experience active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, diagnosed by detection of viral DNA in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes within the first few months posttransplantation. Viral DNA was detected in mononuclear cells prior to detection in granulocytes from(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that infects skin, lymphocytes, and sensory ganglia. VZV glycoprotein E (gE) has a unique N-terminal region (aa1-188), which is required for replication and includes domains involved in secondary envelopment, efficient cell-cell spread, and skin infection in vivo. The nonconserved N-terminal region also(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) is the most abundant glycoprotein in infected cells and, in contrast to those of other alphaherpesviruses, is essential for viral replication. The gE ectodomain contains a unique N-terminal region required for viral replication, cell-cell spread, and secondary envelopment; this region also binds to the(More)
The assembly of herpesvirus capsids is a complex process involving interactions of multiple proteins in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Based on comparative genome analyses, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) open reading frame 23 (ORF23) encodes a conserved capsid protein, referred to as VP26 (UL35) in other alphaherpesviruses. Mutagenesis using a VZV(More)
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human α-herpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) during primary infection and zoster (shingles) upon reactivation. Like other viruses, VZV must subvert the intrinsic antiviral defenses of differentiated human cells to produce progeny virions. Accordingly, VZV inhibits the activation of the cellular transcription(More)
Glycoprotein B (gB), the most conserved protein in the family Herpesviridae, is essential for the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Information about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) gB is limited, but homology modeling showed that the structure of VZV gB was similar to that of herpes simplex virus (HSV) gB, including the putative fusion loops. In(More)