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Previously (Liu et al, Cancer Res., 56: 3371-3379, 1996), we isolated a novel serine protease-like gene--Normal Epithelial Cell Specific-1 (NES1)--that is expressed in normal mammary epithelial cells but is down-regulated in most breast cancer cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that stable expression of NES1 in the NES1-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell(More)
Rationale: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-b has a central role in driving many of the pathological processes that characterize pulmonary fibrosis. Inhibition of the integrin avb6, a key activator of TGF-b in lung, is an attractive therapeutic strategy, as it may be possible to inhibit TGF-b at sites of avb6 up-regulation without affecting other(More)
Meningeal inflammation, including the presence of semi-organized tertiary lymphoid tissue, has been associated with cortical pathology at autopsy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). Accessible and robust biochemical markers of cortical inflammation for use in SPMS clinical trials are needed. Increased levels of chemokines in the(More)
The immunogenicity profile of a biotherapeutic is determined by a multitude of product and patient-related risk factors that can influence the observed incidence and clinical consequences of immunogenicity. Pre-existing antibodies, i.e., biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies present in samples from treatment-naïve subjects, have been commonly observed during(More)
Peginterferon beta-1a was efficacious in a Phase 3 relapsing multiple sclerosis trial, and its safety profile was consistent with other beta interferons. This study evaluated the impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (neopterin elevation; a biomarker of pharmacological activity induced by interferon beta-1a) of(More)
A subset of patients with autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lupus appear to be exposed continually to interferon (IFN) as evidenced by elevated expression of IFN induced genes in blood cells. In lupus, detection of endogenous chromatin complexes by the innate sensing machinery is the suspected driver for the IFN, but the actual(More)
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