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The problem of protein tertiary structure prediction from primary sequence can be separated into two subproblems: generation of a library of possible folds and specification of a best fold given the library. A distance geometry procedure based on random pairwise metrization with good sampling properties was used to generate a library of 500 possible(More)
Global energy optimization of a molecular system is difficult due to the well-known " multiple minimum " problem. The rugged potential energy surface (PES) characteristic of multidimensional systems can be transformed reversibly using potential smoothing to generate a new surface that is easier to search for favorable configurations. The diffusion equation(More)
An empirical potential based on permanent atomic multipoles and atomic induced dipoles is reported for alkanes, alcohols, amines, sulfides, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, amides, aromatics and other small organic molecules. Permanent atomic multipole moments through quadrupole moments have been derived from gas phase ab initio molecular orbital calculations.(More)
Molecular force fields have been approaching a generational transition over the past several years, moving away from well-established and well-tuned, but intrinsically limited, fixed point charge models toward more intricate and expensive polarizable models that should allow more accurate description of molecular properties. The recently introduced AMOEBA(More)
A protocol is described for the treatment of molecular polarization in force field calculations. The resulting model is consistent in that both inter- and intramolecular polarization are handled within a single scheme. An analytical formula for removing intramolecular polarization from a set of atomic multipoles for an arbitrary static structure or(More)
The ab initio folding problem can be divided into two sequential tasks of approximately equal computational complexity: the generation of native-like backbone folds and the positioning of side chains upon these backbones. The prediction of side-chain conformation in this context is challenging, because at best only the near-native global fold of the protein(More)
For successful ab initio protein structure prediction, a method is needed to identify native-like structures from a set containing both native and non-native protein-like conformations. In this regard, the use of distance geometry has shown promise when accurate inter-residue distances are available. We describe a method by which distance geometry(More)
A protein energy surface is constructed. Validation is through applications of global energy minimization to surface loops of protein crystal structures. For 9 of 10 predictions, the native backbone conformation is identified correctly. Electrostatic energy is modeled as a pairwise sum of interactions between anisotropic atomic charge densities. Model(More)
The (4, +) energy surface of blocked alanine (N-acetyl-N'-methyl alanineamide) was calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF)/6-31G* level using ab initio molecular orbital theory. A collection of six electrostatic models was constructed, and the term electrostatic model was used to refer to (1) a set of atomic charge densities, each unable to deform with(More)
Development of the AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Simulation) force field for proteins is presented. The current version (AMOEBA-2013) utilizes permanent electrostatic multipole moments through the quadrupole at each atom, and explicitly treats polarization effects in various chemical and physical environments. The atomic(More)