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Neuroanatomically precise, genome-wide maps of transcript distributions are critical resources to complement genomic sequence data and to correlate functional and genetic brain architecture. Here we describe the generation and analysis of a transcriptional atlas of the adult human brain, comprising extensive histological analysis and comprehensive(More)
In this article the authors address how pathological anxiety may develop from adaptive fear states. Fear responses (e.g., freezing, startle, heart rate and blood pressure changes, and increased vigilance) are functionally adaptive behavioral and perceptual responses elicited during danger to facilitate appropriate defensive responses that can reduce danger(More)
Evidence supports the idea of two distinct corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems in the brain: one which is constrained by glucocorticoids and the other which is not. It is this latter system that includes two primary sites (central nucleus of the amygdala and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) in which the regulation of CRH gene(More)
Previous research has shown that infants who display a high frequency of motor activity and negative affect at 4 months of age are likely to be behaviorally inhibited toddlers. We examined social behaviors, maternal report of temperament, salivary cortisol, and baseline startle responses at age 4 in a sample of children, some of whom displayed a high(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is typically considered to mediate aversive aspects of stress, fear and anxiety. However, CRF release in the brain is also elicited by natural rewards and incentive cues, raising the possibility that some CRF systems in the brain mediate an independent function of positive incentive motivation, such as amplifying(More)
Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, we report differential expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) and the parvocellular region of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) following systemic treatment with corticosterone (CORT) in adrenally-intact rats. Both injection of low(More)
We previously reported that corticosterone (CORT) increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), while reducing it in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus by using in situ hybridization histochemistry. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is closely related to the amygdala, and(More)
Sterotyped fixed action patterns (FAPs) are elicited in rats by oral infusions of taste solutions. These taste-elicited FAPs can be classified as either ingestive or aversive. They reflect the palatability of the taste and can be modified by learning and by the physiological state of the animal. These studies demonstrated that when the physiological state(More)
The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing(More)
Bilateral damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAX) in the rat blunts need-induced NaCl intake and abolishes daily need-free NaCl intake when measured with a two-bottle test. Such a deficit could be the result of impaired taste function. To assess the taste function of the CeAX rat various taste stimuli were introduced directly into the oral(More)