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Adjusting for a causal intermediate is a common analytic strategy for estimating an average causal direct effect (ACDE). The ACDE is the component of the total exposure effect that is not relayed through the specified intermediate. Even if the total effect is unconfounded, the usual ACDE estimate may be biased when an unmeasured variable affects the(More)
Ambient levels of particulate matter have been linked to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms mediating these associations are poorly understood. One candidate mechanism is inflammation. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2002), the authors investigated the relation between exposure to particulate matter of less than or equal(More)
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic research is often devoted to etiologic investigation, and so techniques that may facilitate mechanistic inferences are attractive. Some of these techniques rely on rigid and/or unrealistic assumptions, making the biologic inferences tenuous. The methodology investigated here is effect decomposition: the contrast between effect(More)
OBJECTIVES Understanding mechanistic pathways linking airborne particle exposure to cardiovascular health is important for causal inference and setting environmental standards. We evaluated whether urinary albumin excretion, a subclinical marker of microvascular function which predicts cardiovascular events, was associated with ambient particle exposure. (More)
AIMS To characterize the prevalence of diabetes and associated risk attributes in the Jamaican population. METHODS A random population sample was recruited by door-to-door canvassing (n = 1303). A final participation of 60% was achieved. Oral glucose tolerance testing was conducted after an overnight fast and standard anthropometric and demographic data(More)
To date, few systematic reviews of observational studies have been conducted to comprehensively evaluate the co-morbidity of intimate partner violence (IPV) and specific depression outcomes in women. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarize the extant literature and estimate the magnitude of the association between IPV and key depressive(More)
The success of genome-wide association studies has paralleled the development of efficient genotyping technologies. We describe the development of a next-generation microarray based on the new highly-efficient Affymetrix Axiom genotyping technology that we are using to genotype individuals of European ancestry from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on(More)
We apply a linear programming approach which uses the causal risk difference (RD(C)) as the objective function and provides minimum and maximum values that RD(C) can achieve under any set of linear constraints on the potential response type distribution. We consider two scenarios involving binary exposure X, covariate Z and outcome Y. In the first, Z is not(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency (CED) and associated mortality risk in a cohort of adult Nigerians followed from 1992 to 1997. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES The data for this investigation were derived from an international collaborative study on chronic diseases in populations of the African diaspora. Body mass index(More)