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Concerns about genetically modified (GM) crops include transgene flow to compatible wild species and unintended ecological consequences of potential transgene introgression. However, there has been little empirical documentation of establishment and distribution of transgenic plants in wild populations. We present herein the first evidence for escape of(More)
The rapid spread of the use of new 24-color karyotyping techniques has preceded their standardization. This is best documented by the fact that the exact resolution limits have not yet been defined. Indeed, it is shown here that a substantial proportion of interchromosomal aberrations will be missed by all multicolor karyotyping systems currently in use. We(More)
Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated,(More)
In this study, genome-wide expression profiling based on Affymetrix ATH1 arrays was used to identify discriminating responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to five herbicides, which contain active ingredients targeting two different branches of amino acid biosynthesis. One herbicide contained glyphosate, which targets 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase(More)
Photosynthetic dinoflagellates have evolved unique water-soluble light harvesting complexes known as peridinin-chlorophyll a-binding proteins (PCPs). Most species of dinoflagellates express either 14 to 17 kDa or 32 to 35 kDa mature PCP apoproteins and do so in stable combinations of isoforms that differ in isoelectric point (pI). The source(More)
Separation of the scattering contribution from the total optical attenuation is necessary to determine the absorption portion of nonhomogeneous media such as naturally occurring minerals. In order to investigate experimentally the applicability of a previously developed two-flux radiative transfer model that takes into account surface reflections and(More)
The effects of exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium oxide (nano-cerium) on gene expression and growth in Arabidopsis thaliana germinants were studied by using microarrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and by evaluating germinant phenotypic plasticity. Exposure to 12 d of either nano-titania(More)
Optical imaging in vivo with molecular specificity is important in biomedicine because of its high spatial resolution and sensitivity compared with magnetic resonance imaging. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy allows highly sensitive optical imaging based on vibrational spectroscopy without adding toxic or perturbative labels. However, SRS(More)
Equations are derived to determine the diffuse reflectance and transmittance of inhomogeneous materials. The equations are valid for collimated incident radiation for any angle of incidence. The effects of boundary reflectance and anisotropic scattering are included. The equations are derived from the equation of radiative transport, using the(More)