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—The Siwalik formations of northern Pakistan consist of deposits of ancient rivers that existed throughout the early Miocene through the late Pliocene. The formations are highly fossil-iferous with a diverse array of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates, which in combination with exceptional lateral exposure and good chronostratigraphic control allows a(More)
The potential for regeneration of severed corticospinal axons was examined by labeling these axons with horseradish peroxidase following thoracic spinal cord transections in mice. Shortly after severance, the proximal ends of corticospinal axons formed terminal bulbs that persisted for weeks and were associated with axonal retraction. There were few signs(More)
Life-history inference is an important aim of paleoprimatology, but life histories cannot be discerned directly from the fossil record. Among extant primates, the timing of many life-history attributes is correlated with the age at emergence of the first permanent molar (M1), which can therefore serve as a means to directly compare the life histories of(More)
Several new postcranial elements of Sivapithecus from the Siwaliks of Pakistan are described. These include a distal femur from the U-level of the Dhok Pathan Formation, a navicular from the Chinji Formation, and seven manual and pedal phalanges from the Nagri Formation. The functional morphology of these elements adds new detail to the reconstruction of(More)
Predation is an important selective pressure in natural ecosystems. Among non-human primates, relatively little is known about how predators hunt primate prey and how primates acquire adaptive responses to counteract predation. In this study we took advantage of the recent reintroduction of radio-tagged harpy eagles (Harpia harpyja) to Barro Colorado Island(More)
High dental metric variation in the large hominoid sample from the late Miocene site of Lufeng, China has been interpreted in two ways: (1) there are two morphologically similar species that broadly overlap in size, and (2) there is one species that is more highly sexually dimorphic in dental size, and perhaps in body size, than any extant primate. It has(More)
Birds in the lowland tropical rain forest are expected to have low energy turnover. Here, we used heart rate telemetry to estimate nighttime resting metabolic rate (RMR), daily energy expenditure (DEE), and locomotor activity of a small, long-lived tropical rain forest-understory bird, the spotted antbird (Hylophylax naevioides). Heart rate was linearly(More)
A new species of fossil hominoid is described from the middle Miocene deposits at Paşalar, Turkey. It is the less common of the two Paşalar species discussed by Martin and Andrews (1993), making up approximately 10% of the individuals in the Paşalar hominoid sample according to analyses of the minimum number of individuals. To the diagnostic features of(More)
The life histories of early hominins are commonly characterized as being like those of great apes. However, the life histories of the extant great apes differ considerably from one another. Moreover, the extent to which their life histories correlate with the two aspects of morphology used to infer the life histories of fossil species, brain size and dental(More)