Jay P Graham

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Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health crisis, eroding the discovery of antimicrobials and their application to clinical medicine. There is a general lack of knowledge of the importance of agricultural antimicrobial use as a factor in antimicrobial resistance even among experts in medicine and public health. This review focuses on agricultural(More)
The localization and intensification of the poultry industry over the past 50 years have incidentally created a largely ignored environmental management crisis. As a result of these changes in poultry production, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) produce far more waste than can be managed by land disposal within the regions where it is(More)
BACKGROUND Pit latrines are one of the most common human excreta disposal systems in low-income countries, and their use is on the rise as countries aim to meet the sanitation-related target of the Millennium Development Goals. There is concern, however, that discharges of chemical and microbial contaminants from pit latrines to groundwater may negatively(More)
Use of antibiotics as feed additives in poultry production has been linked to the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in farm workers, consumer poultry products and the environs of confined poultry operations. There are concerns that these resistant bacteria may be transferred to communities near these operations; however, environmental pathways of(More)
Mass disasters are associated with a large number of fatalities, with victims being visually unidentifiable in most cases. Dental identification, although being an important and valuable identification method, is subject to the availability and quality of antemortem and postmortem dental records. This paper presents a simple-to-use method of human(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with Campylobacter exposure, Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms, and neuropathologic antibodies. METHODS Questionnaires, serum samples, and stool specimens were collected from 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by(More)
The use of antimicrobials in commercial broiler poultry production results in the presence of drug-resistant bacteria shed in the excreta of these birds. Because these wastes are largely land-disposed these pathogens can affect the surrounding environment and population. In this analysis, we characterized the survival of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci(More)
OBJECTIVE Considerable controversy persists regarding the use of human antibiotics to promote growth in animals raised for food. The authors examined the economic effect of removing antibiotics used for growth promotion in commercial broiler chickens. METHODS The authors utilized data published by the Perdue company, the fourth largest poultry producer in(More)
This study identified differences in the epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection for low-income populations residing on the United States-Mexico border. Participation included 77 households in three communities lacking adequate municipal water and sewage services. The household was the unit of analysis and sampling was from household biosolid(More)
Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is(More)