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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections of immunocompetent hosts are characterized by a dynamic, life-long interaction in which host immune responses, particularly of T cells, restrain viral replication and prevent disease but do not eliminate the virus or preclude transmission. Because HCMV is among the largest and most complex of known viruses, the T cell(More)
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-causing lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) effectively evade host immunity and, once established, infections with these viruses are only rarely controlled by immunological mechanisms. However, the initial establishment of infection in the first few days after(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus family, is a large complex enveloped virus composed of both viral and cellular gene products. While the sequence of the HCMV genome has been known for over a decade, the full set of viral and cellular proteins that compose the HCMV virion are unknown. To approach this problem we have utilized(More)
Six strains of human cytomegalovirus have been sequenced, including two laboratory strains (AD169 and Towne) that have been extensively passaged in fibroblasts and four clinical isolates that have been passaged to a limited extent in the laboratory (Toledo, FIX, PH, and TR). All of the sequenced viral genomes have been cloned as infectious bacterial(More)
The rapid onset of massive, systemic viral replication during primary HIV or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection and the immune evasion capabilities of these viruses pose fundamental problems for vaccines that depend upon initial viral replication to stimulate effector T cell expansion and differentiation. We hypothesized that vaccines designed to(More)
Cell migration and invasion are fundamental components of tumor cell metastasis. Increased focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression and tyrosine phosphorylation are connected with elevated tumorigenesis. Null mutation of FAK results in embryonic lethality, and FAK-/- fibroblasts exhibit cell migration defects in culture. Here we show that viral Src (v-Src)(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an extensive class of noncoding genes that regulate gene expression through posttranscriptional repression. Given the potential for large viral genomes to encode these transcripts, we examined the human cytomegalovirus AD169 genome for miRNAs using a bioinformatics approach. We identified 406 potential stem-loops, of which 110 were(More)
The entry of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) into biologically relevant epithelial and endothelial cells involves endocytosis followed by low-pH-dependent fusion. This entry pathway is facilitated by the HCMV UL128, UL130, and UL131 proteins, which form one or more complexes with the virion envelope glycoprotein gH/gL. gH/gL/UL128-131 complexes appear to be(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vivo has been linked to a viral etiology of vascular disease. In this report, we demonstrate that HCMV infection of primary arterial SMCs results in significant cellular migration. Ablation of the chemokine receptor, US28, abrogates SMC migration, which is rescued only by expression of(More)
CD8(+) T cell responses focus on a small fraction of pathogen- or vaccine-encoded peptides, and for some pathogens, these restricted recognition hierarchies limit the effectiveness of antipathogen immunity. We found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protein-expressing rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors elicit SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells that(More)