Jay M. McDonald

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13N-labeled ammonia was used to study the cerebral uptake and metabolism of ammonia in conscious rats. After infusion of physiological concentrations of [13N]ammonia for 10 min via one internal carotid artery, the relative specific activities of glutamate, glutamine (alpha-amino), and glutamine (amide) in brain were approximately 1:5:400, respectively. The(More)
Only a subset of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a response to standard therapy. To date, a biomarker panel with predictive power to distinguish treatment sensitive from treatment refractory GBM tumors does not exist. An analysis was performed using GBM microarray data from 4 independent data sets. An examination of the genes(More)
CONTEXT Mutations in the GJB2 gene are the most common known cause of inherited congenital severe-to-profound deafness. The carrier frequency of these mutations is not known. OBJECTIVES To determine the carrier rate of deafness-causing mutations in GJB2 in the midwestern United States and the prevalence of these mutations in persons with congenital(More)
Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the formation of lipid laden macrophages and the development of inflammation. However, oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling that regulates the development of vascular calcification has not been investigated in depth. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth(More)
The skeleton provides mechanical support for stature and locomotion, protects vital organs, and controls mineral homeostasis. A healthy skeleton must be maintained by constant bone modeling to carry out these crucial functions throughout life. Bone remodeling involves the removal of old or damaged bone by osteoclasts (bone resorption) and the subsequent(More)
PURPOSE The clinical significance of epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) expression in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its relationship with other key molecular markers are not clear. We sought to evaluate the clinical significance of GBM subtypes as defined by EGFRvIII status. PATIENTS AND METHODS The expression of EGFRvIII was(More)
Prostate cancer bone metastases are characterized by their ability to induce osteoblastic lesions and local bone formation. It has been suggested that bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are osteomimetic and capable of expressing genes and proteins typically expressed by osteoblasts. The ability of preosteoblasts to differentiate and express osteoblastic(More)
Space flight-induced bone loss has been attributed to a decrease in osteoblast function, without a significant change in bone resorption. To determine the effect of microgravity (MG) on bone, we used the Rotary Cell Culture System [developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)] to model MG. Cultured mouse calvariae demonstrated a(More)
Spaceflight leads to reduced bone mineral density in weight bearing bones that is primarily attributed to a reduction in bone formation. We have previously demonstrated severely reduced osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) following 7 days culture in modeled microgravity (MMG). One potential mechanism for reduced osteoblastic(More)
Increased osteoclastic resorption and subsequent bone loss are common features of many debilitating diseases including osteoporosis, bone metastases, Paget's disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. While rapid progress has been made in elucidating the signaling pathways directing osteoclast differentiation and function, a comprehensive picture is far from(More)