Jay M. Holder

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The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the(More)
Cell migration contributes to many physiological processes and requires dynamic changes in the cytoskeleton. These migration-dependent cytoskeletal changes are partly mediated by p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs). At least four closely related isoforms, PAK1, PAK2, PAK3, and PAK4, exist in mammalian cells. In smooth muscle cells, little is known about(More)
The FT-Raman spectra of six mammalian ivories, other than elephant and mammoth, are presented and spectral differences formulated into a protocol for the identification of animal species from the ivory samples. In this study, sperm whale, walrus, wart hog, narwhal, hippopotamus and domestic pig are considered. The results, which are obtained(More)
Solar radiation is the primary energy source for surface planetary life, so that pigments are fundamental components of any surface-dwelling organism. They may therefore have evolved in some form on Mars as they did on Earth. Photosynthetic microbes are major primary producers on Earth, but are concurrently vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) damage. Using(More)
Subluxation and its association with improvements in quality of life has been anecdotally reported by chiropractors since 1895 beginning with DD Palmer, but has remained ignored in the scientific literature until 2000. Current research is being presented suggesting that chiropractic not only helps with musculoskeletal complaints like neck pain and(More)
Microcystic corneal dystrophy was first described in 1964. Since then, several reports have elaborated on the original findings plus other associated corneal changes. The cause is unknown, but pathological studies have been done in several cases. The corneal changes are subtle and easy to miss on routine examination. This study of 17 patients was undertaken(More)
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