Jay L. Duffner

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Small-molecule inhibition of extracellular proteins that activate membrane receptors has proven to be extremely challenging. Diversity-oriented synthesis and small-molecule microarrays enabled the discovery of robotnikinin, a small molecule that binds the extracellular Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein and blocks Shh signaling in cell lines, human primary(More)
Phosphorylation of neurotransmitter receptors can modify their activity and regulate neuronal excitability. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase involved not only in neuronal development, but also in synaptic function and plasticity. Here we demonstrate that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS)(More)
Glatopa™ is a generic glatiramer acetate recently approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Gene expression profiling was performed as a means to evaluate equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone®. Microarray analysis containing 39,429 unique probes across the entire genome was performed in murine glatiramer(More)
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