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Phosphorylation of neurotransmitter receptors can modify their activity and regulate neuronal excitability. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase involved not only in neuronal development, but also in synaptic function and plasticity. Here we demonstrate that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), which(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in shaping the tumor microenvironment by presenting growth factors, cytokines, and other soluble factors that are critical for host cell recruitment and activation, as well as promoting tumor progression, metastasis, and survival. M402 is a rationally engineered, non-cytotoxic heparan sulfate (HS)(More)
Small-molecule inhibition of extracellular proteins that activate membrane receptors has proven to be extremely challenging. Diversity-oriented synthesis and small-molecule microarrays enabled the discovery of robotnikinin, a small molecule that binds the extracellular Sonic hedgehog (Shh) protein and blocks Shh signaling in cell lines, human primary(More)
Adjuvanted vaccines afford invaluable protection against disease, and the molecular and cellular changes they induce offer direct insight into human immunobiology. Here we show that within 24 h of receiving adjuvanted swine flu vaccine, healthy individuals made expansive, complex molecular and cellular responses that included overt lymphoid as well as(More)
The binding affinity and specificity of heparin to proteins is widely recognized to be sulfation-pattern dependent. However, for the majority of heparin-binding proteins (HBPs), it still remains unclear what moieties are involved in the specific binding interaction. Here, we report our study using saturation transfer difference (STD) nuclear magnetic(More)
Nanoparticles bearing surface-conjugated targeting ligands are increasingly being explored for a variety of biomedical applications. The multivalent conjugation of targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles is presumed to enhance binding to the desired target. However, given the complexities inherent in the interactions of nanoparticle surfaces with(More)
Herein we report the expanded functional group compatibility of small-molecule microarrays to include immobilization of primary alcohols, secondary alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, hydroxamic acids, thiols, and amines on a single slide surface. Small-molecule "diversity microarrays" containing nearly 10,000 known bioactive small molecules, natural(More)
Treatment of atherosclerotic disease often focuses on reducing plasma LDL-cholesterol or increasing plasma HDL-cholesterol. We examined in vitro the effects on HDL receptor [scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)] activity of three classes of clinical and experimental plasma HDL-cholesterol-elevating compounds: niacin, fibrates, and HDL376. Fenofibrate(More)
Glatopa™ is a generic glatiramer acetate recently approved for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Gene expression profiling was performed as a means to evaluate equivalence of Glatopa and Copaxone®. Microarray analysis containing 39,429 unique probes across the entire genome was performed in murine glatiramer(More)
Scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI), controls high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism by mediating cellular selective uptake of lipids from HDL without the concomitant degradation of the lipoprotein particle. We previously identified in a high-throughput chemical screen of intact cells five compounds (BLT-1-5) that inhibit SR-BI-dependent lipid(More)