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—The Siwalik formations of northern Pakistan consist of deposits of ancient rivers that existed throughout the early Miocene through the late Pliocene. The formations are highly fossil-iferous with a diverse array of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates, which in combination with exceptional lateral exposure and good chronostratigraphic control allows a(More)
Life-history inference is an important aim of paleoprimatology, but life histories cannot be discerned directly from the fossil record. Among extant primates, the timing of many life-history attributes is correlated with the age at emergence of the first permanent molar (M1), which can therefore serve as a means to directly compare the life histories of(More)
Among primates, age at first molar emergence is correlated with a variety of life history traits. Age at first molar emergence can therefore be used to broadly infer the life histories of fossil primate species. One method of determining age at first molar emergence is to determine the age at death of fossil individuals that were in the process of erupting(More)
During the past decade, studies of enamel development have provided a broad temporal and geographic perspective on evolutionary developmental biology in Miocene hominoids. Here we report some of the first data for molar crown development in one hominoid genus, Sivapithecus. The data are compared to a range of extant and extinct hominoids. Crown formation(More)
The earliest record of fossil apes outside Africa is in the latest early Miocene of Turkey and eastern Europe. There were at least 2, and perhaps 4, species of ape, which were found associated with subtropical mixed environments of forest and more open woodland. Postcranial morphology is similar to that of early Miocene primates and indicates mainly(More)
Several new postcranial elements of Sivapithecus from the Siwaliks of Pakistan are described. These include a distal femur from the U-level of the Dhok Pathan Formation, a navicular from the Chinji Formation, and seven manual and pedal phalanges from the Nagri Formation. The functional morphology of these elements adds new detail to the reconstruction of(More)
The congregation of the Reverend Henry Simmons (First African Baptist Church at 8th & Vine, Philadelphia) from 1823 to 1841 used a cemetery rediscovered through subway expansion which was carefully excavated by M. Parrington and S. Pinter in 1983-1984; currently 75 adults were available for study. As an overall health indicator, longevity at 38.9 years (N =(More)
Skeletal evidence exists for life stresses of 120 Black individuals from 25 sites in Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Periods for statistical comparison are eighteenth century, 1690-1770; Catoctin Furnace, Maryland industrial slaves, 1790-ca.1820; 1800-ca.1860, nineteenth century; and a twentieth-century Black sample compiled from forensic (accidental(More)
Remains of the hominoid Sivapithecus parvada and a diversity of mammalian taxa are preserved at locality Y311 (ca. 10 Ma) in the Siwalik Nagri Formation of northern Pakistan. Bovids (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) are the most abundant mammals next to tragulids (Tragulidae, Artiodactyla) at locality Y311 and provide a means for reconstructing the paleoenvironments(More)
High dental metric variation in the large hominoid sample from the late Miocene site of Lufeng, China has been interpreted in two ways: (1) there are two morphologically similar species that broadly overlap in size, and (2) there is one species that is more highly sexually dimorphic in dental size, and perhaps in body size, than any extant primate. It has(More)