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Dopamine (DA) is the only catecholaminergic neurotransmitter in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Dopaminergic neurons have been identified in the larval and adult central nervous system (CNS) in Drosophila and other insects, but no specific genetic tool was available to study their development, function, and degeneration in vivo. In Drosophila as in(More)
Sensitization to repeated doses of psychostimulants is thought to be an important component underlying the addictive process in humans [1] [2] [3] [4]. In all vertebrate animal models, including humans [5], and even in fruit flies, sensitization is observed after repeated exposure to volatilized crack cocaine [6]. In vertebrates, sensitization is thought to(More)
Cocaine abuse is a large social and economic problem that has received much public and scientific attention in recent years. Rodent and primate models have been used to study the behavioral and neurological effects of cocaine. Repeated intermittent doses of cocaine lead to progressive increases in both locomotor activity and stereotyped behaviors known as(More)
Hearing in Drosophila depends on the transduction of antennal vibration into receptor potentials by ciliated sensory neurons in Johnston's organ, the antennal chordotonal organ. We previously found that a Drosophila protein in the vanilloid receptor subfamily (TRPV) channel subunit, Nanchung (NAN), is localized to the chordotonal cilia and required to(More)
The circadian clock consists of a feedback loop in which clock genes are rhythmically expressed, giving rise to cycling levels of RNA and proteins. Four of the five circadian genes identified to date influence responsiveness to freebase cocaine in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Sensitization to repeated cocaine exposures, a phenomenon also seen in(More)
Sleep and arousal are known to be regulated by both homeostatic and circadian processes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. It has been reported that the Drosophila rest/activity cycle has features in common with the mammalian sleep/wake cycle, and it is expected that use of the fly genetic model will facilitate a molecular(More)
Dopaminergic neurons are thought to drive learning by signaling changes in the expectations of salient events, such as rewards or punishments. Olfactory conditioning in Drosophila requires direct dopamine action on intrinsic mushroom body neurons, the likely storage sites of olfactory memories. Neither the cellular sources of the conditioning dopamine nor(More)
We identified a unique type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit (PKA-RII) gene in Drosophila melanogaster and a severely hypomorphic if not null mutation, pka-RII(EP(2)2162). Extracts from pka- RII(EP(2)2162) flies selectively lack RII-specific autophosphorylation activity and show significantly reduced cAMP binding activity, attributable to(More)
The Drosophila ninaE gene was isolated by a multistep protocol on the basis of its homology to bovine opsin cDNA. The gene encodes the major visual pigment protein (opsin) contained in Drosophila photoreceptor cells R1-R6. The coding sequence is interrupted by four short introns. The positions of three introns are conserved with respect to positions in(More)
Dopamine is a mediator of the stimulant properties of drugs of abuse, including ethanol, in mammals and in the fruit fly Drosophila. The neural substrates for the stimulant actions of ethanol in flies are not known. We show that a subset of dopamine neurons and their targets, through the action of the D1-like dopamine receptor DopR, promote locomotor(More)