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Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate numerous nonvisual phenomena, including entrainment of the circadian clock to light-dark cycles, pupillary light responsiveness, and light-regulated hormone release. We have applied multielectrode array recording to characterize murine ipRGCs. We find that all ipRGC photosensitivity is(More)
In the immature retina, correlated spontaneous activity in the form of propagating waves is thought to be necessary for the refinement of connections between the retina and its targets. The continued presence of this activity in the mature retina would interfere with the transmission of information about the visual scene. The mechanisms responsible for the(More)
Axon terminals from the two eyes initially overlap in the dorsal-lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) but subsequently refine to occupy nonoverlapping territories. Retinal activity is required to establish and maintain this segregation. We show that despite the presence of retinal activity, segregated projections desegregate when the structure of activity is(More)
Many developing neural circuits generate synchronized bursting activity among neighboring neurons, a pattern thought to be important for sculpting precise neural connectivity. Network output remains relatively constant as the cellular and synaptic components of these immature circuits change during development, suggesting the presence of homeostatic(More)
The use of fluorescence-based calcium indicators has, over the years, unraveled important calcium-dependent mechanisms underlying neuronal function and development. However, difficulties associated with the loading of calcium indicators have limited their widespread use, particularly for the study of neuronal processing in the adult nervous system. Here, we(More)
Transcriptional programs guide the specification of neural cell types in the developing nervous system. However, it is unclear whether such programs also control specific aspects of neural circuit function at maturity. In the mammalian retina, Vsx1 and Irx5 transcription factors are present in a subset of bipolar interneurons that convey signals from(More)
We report that glucocorticoids significantly facilitated the development of cocaine-induced kindled seizures. These results suggest that glucocorticoids may have effects on the development of kindled seizures which are similar to those of the neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), with which they show a close functional relationship. These(More)
A role for spontaneous spiking activity in shaping neuronal circuits has frequently been debated. Analyses of retinotopy in mutant mice with reduced correlated firing among neighboring retinal cells by Grubb et al. and McLaughlin et al. in this issue of Neuron indicate the importance of patterned spontaneous activity for retinotopic map refinement in(More)
UNLABELLED Spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole source of visual information to the brain; and understanding how the ∼20 RGC types in mammalian retinae respond to diverse visual features and events is fundamental to understanding vision. Suppressed-by-contrast (SbC) RGCs stand apart from all other RGC types in that they reduce rather(More)
Vesicular transporters mediate the packaging of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles and can therefore control the amount of neurotransmitter released into the synaptic cleft. In this issue of Neuron, Smear et al. demonstrate that mutation of a vesicular glutamate transporter (Vglut) found in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of zebrafish alters both(More)