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The M(r) values of pharmaceutical heparins and low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin derivatives were examined as part of a collaborative study to develop methods for their characterization. Standard methods of M(r) determination rely on gel permeation high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We report the use of gradient polyacrylamide gel(More)
This study evaluated enoxaparin alone versus initial enoxaparin followed by warfarin in secondary prevention of venous thromboembolic events in adults with active malignancy. Cancer patients (n = 122) with acute symptomatic venous thromboembolic events were randomly allocated to receive subcutaneous enoxaparin 1.0 mg/kg every 12 hours for 5 days, followed(More)
Heparin has been used as a clinical anticoagulant for more than 50 years, making it one of the most effective pharmacological agents known. Much of heparin's activity can be traced to its ability to bind antithrombin III (AT-III). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), derived from heparin by its controlled breakdown, maintains much of the antithrombotic(More)
During the past decade, a large number of new anticoagulant and antithrombotic drugs have been developed. These agents represent a wide variety of substances that are derived using natural sources, biotechnology-based methods, and synthetic approaches. Because of the structural and molecular characteristics, these agents exhibit physicochemical and(More)
OBJECTIVE This review of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), the most frequent and dangerous side effect of heparin exposure, covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease syndrome. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION Current consensus of opinion is given based on literature reports, as well as(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the safety and efficacy of recombinant thrombomodulin (ART-123) in patients with suspected sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation. DESIGN Phase 2b, international, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group, screening trial. SETTING Two hundred and thirty-three ICUs in 17 countries.(More)
High levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers have been reported in depression. In the present study, five pro-inflammatory biomarkers were measured in the blood of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Biomarker levels were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Patients with MDD had significantly higher baseline levels of tumour necrosis(More)
In 1993, a study was undertaken at the Hand Clinics of Loyola University Medical Center in Chicago to investigate the role of the neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. All of the patients had recurrent or continuous pain, swelling, and stiffness of one or both extremities following either acute trauma or surgical intervention.(More)
Antibodies to heparin-platelet factor 4 (PF4) complexes have been observed in patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) syndrome. These antibodies may be of various isotypes and differ with respect to their ability to activate platelets/endothelial cells. This study determined the isotypes and functionality of antiheparin-platelet factor 4 (AHPF4)(More)