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The spatial, temporal, and hormonal pattern of expression of the beta-casein gene is highly regulated and confined to the epithelial cells of the lactating mammary gland. Previous studies have shown that 1.7 kb of the bovine beta-casein promoter were able to drive cell-specific and hormone-dependent expression to a mouse mammary cell line but failed to(More)
The pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene is expressed in a subset of hypothalamic and hindbrain neurons and in pituitary melanotrophs and corticotrophs. POMC neurons release the potent opioid beta-endorphin and several active melanocortins that control homeostasis and feeding behavior. POMC gene expression in the CNS is believed to be controlled by distinct(More)
RBL cells provide a useful model of the IgE and antigen-dependent stimulus-secretion coupling of mast cells and basophils. We have measured cellular deformability to investigate the participation of cytoskeletal mechanical changes. Cross-linking cell-surface IgE-receptor complexes with multivalent ligands not only triggered secretion but also caused the(More)
Different kinds of leukocytes undergo cytoskeleton-dependent mechanical responses associated with their specific physiological functions. We have investigated cellular stiffening of several types of leukocytes using a method which measures the force resisting cellular indentation. We have found that lymphocytes stiffen in response to crosslinking cell(More)
Cross-linking surface immunoglobulin (sIg) on B-lymphocytes causes a substantial increase in the mechanical stiffness of the cells. This has been demonstrated using a new method for measuring cellular deformability. The method is based on a device, the "Cell Poker", which we use to determine the force required slightly to indent or compress a cell adherent(More)
Ap3A is a platelet-dense granule component released into the extracellular space during the second wave of platelet aggregation on activation. Here, we identify an uncharacterized enzyme, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-4 (NPP4), as a potent hydrolase of Ap3A capable of stimulating platelet aggregation and secretion. We demonstrate that NPP4 is(More)
Ap3A is a platelet-dense granule component released into the extracellular space during the second wave of platelet aggre-gation on activation. Here, we identify an uncharacterized enzyme, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-4 (NPP4), as a potent hydrolase of Ap3A capable of stimulating platelet aggrega-tion and secretion. We demonstrate that NPP4(More)
Mixed reality, as an approach in human-computer interaction, is often implicitly tied to particular implementation techniques (e.g., see-through device) and modalities (e.g., visual, graphical displays). In this paper we attempt to clarify the definition of mixed reality as a more abstract concept of combining the real and virtual worlds – that is, mixed(More)