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The oxygen paradox tells us that oxygen is both necessary for aerobic life and toxic to all life forms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) touch every biological and medical discipline, especially those involving proliferative status, supporting the idea that active oxygen may be increased in tumor cells. In fact, metabolism of oxygen and the resulting toxic(More)
Glutamine is a multifaceted amino acid used for hepatic urea synthesis, renal ammoniagenesis, gluconeogenesis in both liver and kidney, and as a major respiratory fuel for many cells. Decreased glutamine concentrations are found during catabolic stress and are related to susceptibility to infections. Besides, glutamine is not only an important energy source(More)
Phosphate-activated glutaminase has a critical role in tumours and rapidly dividing cells and its activity is correlated with malignancy. Ehrlich ascites tumour cells transfected with the pcDNA3 vector containing an antisense segment (0.28 kb) of rat kidney glutaminase showed impairment in the growth rate and plating efficiency, as well as a shortage in the(More)
The enzyme glutaminase in brain is responsible for the synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate. We used the two-hybrid genetic selection system in yeast to look for interactors of glutaminase in human brain. We have identified two proteins containing PDZ domains, alpha1-syntrophin and a glutaminase-interacting protein, named GIP, that showed association(More)
It is fascinating that a relatively simple amino acid like glutamine is involved in such large variety of cellular reactions. Glutamine is required for nitrogen-stimulated proliferation in many cells, but glutamine stimulates not only the growth of cells but also the expression of surface antigens, the formation of cytokines, the synthesis of heat shock(More)
BACKGROUND This study was realized thanks to the collaboration of children and adolescents who had been resected from cerebellar tumors. The medulloblastoma group (CE+, n = 7) in addition to surgery received radiation and chemotherapy. The astrocytoma group (CE, n = 13) did not receive additional treatments. Each clinical group was compared in their(More)
The pH dependence of the phosphate-activated glutaminase isolated from Ehrlich tumour cells suggests a functional role for two prototropic groups with apparent pKa of 9.3 and 7.7 at the active site of the protein; these pKa values are compatible with cysteine and histidine residues, respectively. This possibility was investigated by chemical modification(More)
Oxidative stress can be defined as the imbalance between cellular oxidant species production and antioxidant capability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a variety of different cellular processes ranging from apoptosis and necrosis to cell proliferation and carcinogenesis. In fact, molecular events, such as induction of cell proliferation,(More)
Glutamine is an essential amino acid in cancer cells and is required for the growth of many other cell types. Glutaminase activity is positively correlated with malignancy in tumours and with growth rate in normal cells. In the present work, Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, and their derivative, 0.28AS-2 cells, expressing antisense glutaminase mRNA, were(More)
In experiments with whole animals infested with a highly malignant strain of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, serial concentrations of amino acids were determined for host plasma, ascitic fluid, and tumor cells, throughout tumor development. Concentration gradients of glutamine, asparagine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, histidine,(More)