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Aspergillus fumigatus is exceptional among microorganisms in being both a primary and opportunistic pathogen as well as a major allergen. Its conidia production is prolific, and so human respiratory tract exposure is almost constant. A. fumigatus is isolated from human habitats and vegetable compost heaps. In immunocompromised individuals, the incidence of(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, environmental stress conditions that damage the cell wall lead to activation of the so-called "compensatory mechanism," aimed at preserving cell integrity through a remodeling of this extracellular matrix. Here we used DNA microarrays to investigate the molecular basis of this response to two agents that induce(More)
Perturbations of the yeast cell wall trigger a repair mechanism that reconfigures its molecular structure to preserve cell integrity. To investigate this mechanism, we compared the global gene expression in five mutant strains, each bearing a mutation (i.e. fks1, kre6, mnn9, gas1, and knr4 mutants) that affects in a different manner the cell wall(More)
Although natural peptide ligands of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules have been extensively studied, information about peptides naturally bound to HLA-DP is limited. Here we describe HLA-DP2 peptide ligands corresponding to 24 different source proteins that were identified by peptide pool elution and mass spectrometry sequencing from HLA-DP2 molecules expressed(More)
Using a hierarchical approach, 620 non-essential single-gene yeast deletants generated by EUROFAN I were systematically screened for cell-wall-related phenotypes. By analyzing for altered sensitivity to the presence of Calcofluor white or SDS in the growth medium, altered sensitivity to sonication, or abnormal morphology, 145 (23%) mutants showing at least(More)
The cross-linking of polysaccharides to assemble new cell wall in fungi requires mechanisms by which a preexisting linkage is broken for each new one made, to allow for the absence of free energy sources outside the plasma membrane. Previous work showed that Crh1p and Crh2p, putative transglycosylases, are required for the linkage of chitin to(More)
In budding yeast, chitin is found in three locations: at the primary septum, largely in free form, at the mother-bud neck, partially linked to beta(1-3)glucan, and in the lateral wall, attached in part to beta(1-6)glucan. By using a recently developed strategy for the study of cell wall cross-links, we have found that chitin linked to beta(1-6)glucan is(More)
BACKGROUND Mannoproteins construct the outer cover of the fungal cell wall. The covalently linked cell wall protein Ccw12p is an abundant mannoprotein. It is considered as crucial structural cell wall component since in baker's yeast the lack of CCW12 results in severe cell wall damage and reduced mating efficiency. RESULTS In order to explore the(More)
The information available on the specific function of HLA-DP and the structure-function relationships is very limited. Here, single amino acid substitutions of HLA-DPB1*02012 have been used to analyze the role of polymorphic residues of the DPbeta1 domain on DP-mediated T cell allorecognition and peptide binding. Using a panel of specific anti-HLA-DP mAb,(More)
Infections by opportunistic fungi have traditionally been viewed as the gross result of a pathogenic automatism, which makes a weakened host more vulnerable to microbial insults. However, fungal sensing of a host's immune environment might render this process more elaborate than previously appreciated. Here we show that interleukin (IL)-17A binds fungal(More)