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Activation of calcium-ion (Ca2+) channels on the plasma membrane and on intracellular Ca2+ stores, such as the endoplasmic reticulum, generates local transient increases in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration that induce Ca2+ uptake by neighbouring mitochondria. Here, by using mitochondrially targeted aequorin proteins with different Ca2+ affinities, we show(More)
Targeted recombinant aequorins represent to date the most specific means of monitoring [Ca2+] in subcellular organelles (Rizzuto, R., Simpson, A. W. M., Brini, M., and Pozzan, T. (1992) Nature 358, 325-328; Brini, M., Murgia, M., Pasti, L., Picard, D., Pozzan, T., and Rizzuto, R. (1993) EMBO J. 12, 4813-4819; Kendall, J. M., Dormer, R. L., and Campbell, A.(More)
The presence and physiological role of Ca 2 ϩ-induced Ca 2 ϩ release (CICR) in nonmuscle excitable cells has been investigated only indirectly through measurements of cytosolic [Ca 2 ϩ ] ([Ca 2 ϩ ] c). Using targeted aequorin, we have directly monitored [Ca 2 ϩ ] changes inside the ER ([Ca 2 ϩ ] ER) in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Ca 2 ϩ entry induced(More)
Recent results indicate that Ca2+ transport by organella contributes to shaping Ca2+ signals and exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells. Therefore, accurate measurements of [Ca2+] inside cytoplasmic organella are essential for a comprehensive analysis of the Ca2+ redistribution that follows cell stimulation. Here we have studied changes in Ca2+ inside the(More)
The axoplasmic incorporation of amino acids was studied in the giant Mauthner axon to determine its magnitude, to estimate the half-life of the resulting material, and to establish whether or not it undergoes transport. The incorporation of labeled leucine, lysine, and proline was followed by radioautography. The tracers were injected away from the cell(More)
There is increasing evidence that mitochondria play an important role in the control of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. We show here that the main mitochondrial Ca2+-exit pathway, the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, controls the pattern of cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations in non-excitable cells. In HeLa cells, the inhibitor of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ca(2+) signalling and exocytosis mediated by nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes, especially the α7 nAChR, in bovine chromaffin cells are still matters of debate. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have used chromaffin cell cultures loaded with Fluo-4 or transfected with aequorins directed to the cytosol or mitochondria, several nAChR(More)
In toads Xenopus laevis living at 11 degrees (winter), the microtubular density of 4-microns myelinated axons of lumbosacral nerves was assessed with the electron microscope. In controls, the density was 11.2 microtubules/microns2. In nerves incubated at 0 degrees, microtubules decreased following a simple exponential curve with a half time of 4.7 min (k =(More)
The dynamics of mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](M)) plays a key role in a variety of cellular processes. The most important methods available to monitor [Ca(2+)](M) are fluorescent dyes such as rhod-2 and specifically targeted proteins such as aequorin and pericam. However, significant discrepancies, both quantitative and qualitative, exist in the(More)
We have reported that a population of chromaffin cell mitochondria takes up large amounts of Ca(2+) during cell stimulation. The present study focuses on the pathways for mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux. Treatment with protonophores before cell stimulation abolished mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and increased the cytosolic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](c)) peak induced by(More)