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During 2006-2011, 331 red chilli samples (226 whole, 69 powdered and 36 crushed) were collected from all over Pakistan for the estimation of total aflatoxins (AFs = AFB1 + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) contamination by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Mean AFs levels in whole, powdered and crushed chillies were 11.7, 27.8 and 31.2 µg kg(-1), respectively. AFs levels(More)
Protein kinases are involved in many diseases like cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. They have become attractive target classes for drug development, making kinase inhibitors as important class of therapeutics. The success of small-molecule ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors such as Gleevec, Iressa, and Tarceva has attracted much(More)
Purpose. The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has steadily increased over the past decade. A multitude of factors for this rise in incidence of CDAD have been postulated, including the increased use of gastric acid suppression therapy (GAST). Despite the presence of practice guidelines for use of GAST, studies have demonstrated(More)
Loofa sponge (LS) immobilized biomass of Chlorella sorokiniana (LSIBCS), isolated from industrial wastewater, was investigated as a new biosorbent for the removal of Cr(III) from aqueous solution. A comparison of the biosorption of Cr(III) by LSIBCS and free biomass of C. sorokiniana (FBCS) from 10-300 mg Cr(III)/L aqueous solutions showed an increase in(More)
The removal characteristics of arsenate using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) were investigated. Among four different cationic surfactants used, hexadecylpyridinium chloride (CPC) showed the highest removal efficiency of arsenic (96%), and the removal efficiency with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was 94%. But the removal efficiency with(More)
Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) analyses were carried out on quinazoline, quinoline, and cyanoquinoline derivatives inhibiting c-Src kinase. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) 3D-QSAR models were developed. The conventional r2 values for CoMFA(More)
2,4-Thiazolidinedione derivatives of 1,3-benzoxazinone were synthesized and evaluated for their PPAR-alpha and -gamma dual activation. DRF-2519, a compound obtained through SAR of TZD derivatives of benzoxazinone, has shown potent dual PPAR activation. In ob/ob mice, it showed better efficacy than the comparator molecules. In fat fed rat model, it showed(More)
The chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) gene in Phenacoccus solenopsis (PsCHS1) was evaluated as a potential target of RNA interference (RNAi) by using Potato virus X (PVX) as a vector (recombinant PVX) for expressing RNAi triggering elements in Nicotiana tabacum L. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of PsCHS1 in N. tabacum inoculated with recombinant-PVX–PsCHS1(More)
The synthesis and biological evaluation of novel pyrazole-3-carboxamide derivatives as CB1 antagonists are described. As a part of eastern amide SAR, various chemically diverse motifs were introduced. In general, a range of modifications were well tolerated. Several molecules with high polar surface area were also identified as potent CB1 receptor(More)
An efficient improved procedure for the synthesis of beta-acetamido carbonyl compounds is developed by a cobalt(II) chloride-catalyzed three-component coupling protocol. The procedure is also amenable to the synthesis of gamma-lactams by a three-component coupling reaction with use of 2-carbomethoxybenzaldehyde. The beta-acetamido carbonyl compounds derived(More)