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A major barrier to regenerating axons after injury in the mammalian central nervous system is an unfavorable milieu. Three proteins found in myelin--Nogo, MAG, and OMgp--inhibit axon regeneration in vitro and bind to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR). However, genetic deletion of NgR has only a modest disinhibitory effect,(More)
To determine how signals emanating from Trk transmit neurotrophin actions in primary neurons, we tested the ability of TrkB mutated at defined effector binding sites to promote sympathetic neuron survival or local axon growth. TrkB stimulated signaling proteins and induced survival and growth in a manner similar to TrkA. TrkB mutated at the Shc binding site(More)
We examined the biosynthesis and post-translational processing of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor (pro-BDNF) in cells infected with a pro-BDNF-encoding vaccinia virus. Metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation, and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveal that pro-BDNF is generated as a 32-kDa precursor that is N-glycosylated and(More)
Axon regeneration failure in the adult mammalian CNS is attributed in part to the inhibitory nature of CNS myelin. Three myelin-associated, structurally distinct proteins, Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein, and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein, have been implicated in this inhibition. Neuronal Nogo receptor (NgR) binds to each of the three inhibitors(More)
Naturally occurring sympathetic neuron death is the result of two apoptotic signaling events: one normally suppressed by NGF/TrkA survival signals, and a second activated by the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Here we demonstrate that the p53 tumor suppressor protein, likely as induced by the MEKK-JNK pathway, is an essential component of both of these apoptotic(More)
The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimer's disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimer's disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here,(More)
Inhibitory molecules associated with myelin and the glial scar limit axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying signaling mechanisms of regeneration inhibition are not fully understood. Here, we show that suppressing the kinase function of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) blocks the activities of both myelin(More)
Monoclonal antibodies have therapeutic potential for treating diseases of the central nervous system, but their accumulation in the brain is limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Here, we show that reducing the affinity of an antibody for the transferrin receptor (TfR) enhances receptor-mediated transcytosis of the anti-TfR antibody across the BBB into(More)
The p53 family member p63 is required for nonneural development, but has no known role in the nervous system. Here, we define an essential proapoptotic role for p63 during naturally occurring neuronal death. Sympathetic neurons express full-length TAp63 during the developmental death period, and TAp63 levels increase following NGF withdrawal. Overexpression(More)
Peripheral nerve growth is regulated by the coordinated action of numerous external stimuli, including positively acting neurotrophin-derived growth cues and restrictive semaphorin cues. Here, we show that Semaphorin 3F (Sema 3F) can antagonize nerve growth factor (NGF)-stimulated TrkA (tyrosine receptor kinase A) signaling in sympathetic neurons, thereby(More)