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Simple addition (e.g., 3 + 2, 7 + 9) may be performed by direct memory retrieval or by such procedures as counting or transformation. The distribution of associations (DOA) model of strategy choice (Siegler, 1988) predicts that procedure use should increase as retrieval interference increases. To test this, 100 undergraduates performed simple addition(More)
We propose an approach to design recovery of real-time graphical applications - such as flight simulators and games - that uses video to link lower-level code events with their higher-level graphical manifestations. Such a link can be used for both top-down and bottom-up design recovery. Top-down, one can identify an interesting visual event in the video(More)
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