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With the publication of DSM-5, the diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia) have undergone several changes, which have important conceptual and clinical implications. In this paper, we first provide a brief history of the diagnosis. We then review a number of these changes, including (1) the primary name of the(More)
OBJECTIVE Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is frequently used for various adult anxiety disorders, but there has been no systematic review of the efficacy of CBT in randomized placebo-controlled trials. The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of CBT versus placebo for adult anxiety disorders. DATA SOURCES We conducted a computerized(More)
Cognitive theories posit that exposure-based treatments exert their effect on social anxiety by modifying judgmental biases. The present study provides a conservative test of the relative roles of changes in judgmental biases in governing social anxiety reduction and addresses several limitations of previous research. Longitudinal, within-subjects analysis(More)
INTRODUCTION Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Men and women (N = 150) with(More)
Correcting patients' faulty beliefs concerning social evaluative threats is the hallmark of cognitive-behavioral treatment of social anxiety disorder. The current study examined the efficacy of two videotape feedback procedures as adjuncts to exposure-based treatment. Participants suffering from social phobia (N=77) were randomly assigned to one of four(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the magnitude of improvement associated with psychotherapy control conditions for adult anxiety disorders. This information is important for the design of psychosocial treatment efficacy studies. METHOD We performed a computerized search of treatment outcome studies of anxiety disorders conducted between the first(More)
BACKGROUND Whereas some studies have shown clear evidence for an augmentation effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) on exposure therapy for anxiety disorders, other studies have shown weak effects or no effect at all. Some preclinical data suggest that the DCS augmentation effect is moderated by the success of extinction learning. Therefore, we conducted a(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to identify individual characteristics that (a) predict symptom improvement with group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD; i.e., prognostic variables) or (b) moderate the effects of d-cycloserine (DCS) versus placebo augmentation of CBT for SAD (i.e., prescriptive variables). (More)
We tested several hypotheses derived from the emotional processing theory of fear reduction by manipulating claustrophobic participants' focus of attention during in vivo exposure. Sixty participants displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomized to one of four exposure conditions. Each participant received a total of 30-min of self-guided exposure(More)
It has been suggested that disgust plays a prominent role in the fear of spiders. Participants (N=27) displaying marked spider fear were provided 30 min of self-directed in vivo exposure to an actual tarantula, during which time their fear and disgust levels were assessed repeatedly. Growth curve analyses were then conducted to examine the decay slopes in(More)