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OBJECTIVE Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is frequently used for various adult anxiety disorders, but there has been no systematic review of the efficacy of CBT in randomized placebo-controlled trials. The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of CBT versus placebo for adult anxiety disorders. DATA SOURCES We conducted a computerized(More)
CONTEXT Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is common and debilitating. Although exposure therapy is one of the most effective forms of psychotherapy for this disorder, many patients remain symptomatic. Fear reduction in exposure therapy is similar to extinction learning, and early clinical data with specific phobias suggest that the treatment effects of exposure(More)
The primary aim of the current study was to further investigate the deleterious effects of safety-seeking behaviors on fear reduction by disentangling the effects of perceived availability of threat-relevant safety behaviors during treatment versus their actual use. Participants (N=72) displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomly assigned to 1 of 5(More)
Cognitive theories posit that exposure-based treatments exert their effect on social anxiety by modifying judgmental biases. The present study provides a conservative test of the relative roles of changes in judgmental biases in governing social anxiety reduction and addresses several limitations of previous research. Longitudinal, within-subjects analysis(More)
We tested several hypotheses derived from the emotional processing theory of fear reduction by manipulating claustrophobic participants' focus of attention during in vivo exposure. Sixty participants displaying marked claustrophobic fear were randomized to one of four exposure conditions. Each participant received a total of 30-min of self-guided exposure(More)
Narrative reviews conclude that behavioral therapies (BTs) produce better outcomes than control conditions for cannabis use disorders (CUDs). However, the strength and consistency of this effect has not been directly empirically examined. The present meta-analysis combined multiple well-controlled studies to help clarify the overall impact of behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the magnitude of improvement associated with psychotherapy control conditions for adult anxiety disorders. This information is important for the design of psychosocial treatment efficacy studies. METHOD We performed a computerized search of treatment outcome studies of anxiety disorders conducted between the first(More)
The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. control conditions in the reduction of anxiety sensitivity. A computerized search was conducted to identify CBT outcome studies that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as a dependent variable. Of the 989 studies that were identified, 24(More)
INTRODUCTION Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Men and women (N = 150) with(More)
Correcting patients' faulty beliefs concerning social evaluative threats is the hallmark of cognitive-behavioral treatment of social anxiety disorder. The current study examined the efficacy of two videotape feedback procedures as adjuncts to exposure-based treatment. Participants suffering from social phobia (N=77) were randomly assigned to one of four(More)