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The detection of emotion is becoming an increasingly important field for human-computer interaction as the advantages emotion recognition offer become more apparent and realisable. Emotion recognition can be achieved by a number of methods, one of which is through the use of bio-sensors. Bio-sensors possess a number of advantages against other emotion(More)
The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA). These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT)-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin(More)
Excitatory amino acid transmission within mesocorticolimbic brain pathways is thought to play an important role in behavioural sensitization to psychomotor stimulants. The current studies evaluated a time course of the effects of cocaine on extracellular glutamate levels within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following increasing periods of withdrawal(More)
Toluene is a commonly abused solvent found in many industrial and commercial products. The neurobiological effects of toluene remain unclear, but many of them, like those of ethanol, may be mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Chronic ethanol administration has been shown to alter levels of specific subunits for GABA type A(More)
The parkinsonian symptoms and increased Mn accumulation in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the basal ganglia implicate impaired dopamine signaling in the neurotoxic effects of chronic manganese overexposure. Using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we mapped brain responses to acute amphetamine(More)
The primary mechanism for clearance of extracellular dopamine (DA) is uptake mediated by the dopamine transporter (DAT), which is governed, in part, by the number of functional DATs on the cell surface. Previous studies have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) decreases DAT cell surface expression, whereas insulin reverses this effect through the action of(More)
AIMS A failure of the arousal mechanism is a key feature in the apnoea theory for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In infants studied at an age when the incidence of SIDS is highest, we evaluated whether in utero smoke exposed infants have altered arousal response to standardised auditory stimuli, and/or sleep pattern, as recorded on overnight complex(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization, which is the progressive enhancement of locomotor activity that occurs with repeated administration of psychostimulants. Previous data suggest that mPFC dopamine (DA) transmission may be attenuated in cocaine-sensitized animals, but the onset and duration(More)
Neurotransmission within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system has remained the central focus of investigation into the molecular, cellular and behavioral properties of psychostimulants for nearly three decades. The primary means by which dopamine transmission in the synapse is terminated is via the dopamine transporter (DAT), the presynaptic plasmalemmal(More)