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Universal background models (UBM) in speaker recognition systems are typically Gaussian mixture models (GMM) trained from a large amount of data using the maximum likelihood criterion. This paper investigates three alternative criteria for training the UBM. In the first, we cluster an existing automatic speech recognition (ASR) acoustic model to generate(More)
Voice biometrics for user authentication is a task in which the object is to perform convenient, robust and secure authentication of speakers. In this work we investigate the use of state-of-the-art text-independent and text-dependent speaker verification technology for user authentication. We evaluate four different authentication conditions: speaker(More)
This paper investigates the use of microphone arrays in hands-free speaker recognition systems. Hands-free operation is preferable in many potential speaker recognition applications, however obtaining acceptable performance with a single distant microphone is problematic in real noise conditions. A possible solution to this problem is the use of microphone(More)
The performance of a typical speaker verification system degrades significantly in reverberant environments. This degradation is partly due to the conventional feature extraction/compensation techniques that use analysis windows which are much shorter than typical room impulse responses. In this paper, we present a feature extraction technique which(More)