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This article reviews the history of Clinical Global Impressions of Change (CGIC) instruments, their use and limitations in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease, and the development of the National Institute on Aging's Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change Scale (ADCS-CGIC). Originally, CGICs were simple and(More)
This article reports the development and psychometric properties of the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC). At present, a number of unvalidated CGIC scales are used in clinical trials, with various methods for making ratings. The ADCS-CGIC was designed on the basis of a survey of ADCS clinicians and by(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of memantine in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) receiving cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment. METHODS Participants (N= 433) with probable AD, Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores between 10-22 (inclusive), and concurrent stable use of ChEIs (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine)(More)
This report describes the GRID-Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (GRID-HAMD), an improved version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale that was developed through a broad-based international consensus process. The GRID-HAMD separates the frequency of the symptom from its intensity for most items, refines several problematic anchors, and integrates both a(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the moderate-affinity, uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, versus placebo in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). METHOD This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 42 U.S. sites.(More)
OBJECTIVES To review progress made during the past decade in late-life mood disorders and to identify areas of unmet need in health care delivery and research. PARTICIPANTS The Consensus Development Panel consisted of experts in late-life mood disorders, geriatrics, primary care, mental health and aging policy research, and advocacy. EVIDENCE (1)(More)
Psychiatric disturbances affect as many as 90% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are a major focus of treatment. Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric complications of AD, affecting as many as 50% of patients. In this context, depression is a significant public health problem that has a series of serious adverse consequences for(More)
This article focuses on diagnostic and nosologic challenges intrinsic to geriatric depression, including characteristics interfering with symptom and syndrome ascertainment, the impact of medical and cognitive disorders, the usefulness of screening instruments, and barriers imposed by treatment settings. The article also identifies gaps in existing(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials have suggested benefits of memantine for all stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A meta-analysis of memantine trials in outpatients with probable AD was conducted. METHODS Six randomized, placebo-controlled trials fulfilled inclusion criteria. Cognitive, global, functional, behavioral, and safety measures were evaluated by using(More)