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Respiratory complex II oxidizes succinate to fumarate as part of the Krebs cycle and reduces ubiquinone in the electron transport chain. Previous experimental evidence suggested that complex II is not a significant contributor to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in isolated mitochondria or intact cells unless mutated. However, we find that(More)
Mitochondrial proton and electron leak have a major impact on mitochondrial coupling efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species. In the first part of this chapter, we address the molecular nature of the basal and inducible proton leak pathways, and their physiological importance. The basal leak is unregulated, and a major proportion can be(More)
Individual sites of superoxide production in the mitochondrial respiratory chain have previously been defined and partially characterized using specific inhibitors, but the native contribution of each site to total superoxide production in the absence of inhibitors is unknown. We estimated rates of superoxide production (measured as H(2)O(2)) at various(More)
Superoxide production from antimycin-inhibited complex III in isolated mitochondria first increased to a maximum then decreased as substrate supply was modulated in three different ways. In each case, superoxide production had a similar bell-shaped relationship to the reduction state of cytochrome b(566), suggesting that superoxide production peaks at(More)
We compared levels of the major organic osmolytes in the muscle of elasmobranchs, including the methylamines trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), betaine and sarcosine as well as the beta-amino acids taurine and beta-alanine, and the activities of enzymes of methylamine synthesis (betaine and TMAO) in species with a wide range of urea contents. Four marine, a(More)
Smelt (Osmerus mordax) were maintained at either ambient water temperature or approximately 5 degrees C and various aspects of their freeze-avoidance response were examined from early winter until early spring. Plasma levels of glycerol, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and urea were elevated by December 15 and continued to increase in fish held in ambient(More)
The unusual energy metabolism of elasmobranchs is characterized by limited or absent fatty acid oxidation in cardiac and skeletal muscle and a great reliance on ketone bodies and amino acids as oxidative fuels in these tissues. Other extrahepatic tissues in elasmobranchs rely on ketone bodies and amino acids for aerobic energy production but, unlike muscle,(More)
Despite decades of speculation, the proton pumping mechanism of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is unknown and continues to be controversial. Recent descriptions of the architecture of the hydrophobic region of complex I have resolved one vital issue: this region appears to have multiple proton transporters that are mechanically interlinked.(More)
The contribution of alterations in mitochondrial K(ATP) channel activity and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to anaerobic cardiac function in the anoxia tolerant armored catfish Liposarcus pardalis were assessed. K(ATP) channels contribute to hypoxic cardioprotection in mammals, but little is known of their action in more hypoxia tolerant animals. Anoxia(More)