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Francisella tularensis is capable of rampant intracellular growth and causes a potentially fatal disease in humans. Whereas many mutational studies have been performed with avirulent strains of Francisella, relatively little has been done with strains that cause human disease. We generated a near-saturating transposon library in the virulent strain Schu S4,(More)
Capsular polysaccharides are important factors in bacterial pathogenesis and have been the target of a number of successful vaccines. Francisella tularensis has been considered to express a capsular antigen but none has been isolated or characterized. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, 11B7, which recognizes the capsular polysaccharide of F.(More)
Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been shown to form biofilms during cervical infection. Thus, biofilm formation may play an important role in the infection of women. The ability of N. gonorrhoeae to form membrane blebs is crucial to biofilm formation. Blebs contain DNA and outer membrane structures, which have been shown to be major constituents of the biofilm(More)
The anaphylatoxin receptors of the complement system are important in immune defense but also play a role in autoimmune disease. Reports have demonstrated induced C5a receptor (C5aR) expression in a number of disease states, yet little is known about the regulation of this gene. We have examined sequences in the presumptive promoter-enhancer region in order(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have demonstrated that a number of genes associated with infectivity have long repeat regions associated with phase variation in expression of the respective gene. The purpose of this study was to determine the genes that underwent phase variation during a 6-day period of experimental human(More)
Bacterial flagella mediate host-microbe interactions through tissue tropism during colonization, as well as by activating immune responses. The flagellar shaft of some bacteria, including several human pathogens, is encased in a membranous sheath of unknown function. While it has been hypothesized that the sheath may allow these bacteria to evade host(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, and the lipid A region of LPS mediates stimulation of the immune system in a structure-dependent manner. Unlike the LPS of many other gram-negative bacteria, the LPS of Francisella tularensis isolated from in vitro cultures is not proinflammatory. This observed(More)
LPS is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The lipid A region of LPS mediates stimulation of the immune system. In E. coli, the gene (formerly htrB) codes for a late lauroyltransferase (LpxL) in lipid A biosynthesis. E. coli lpxL mutants have been described previously with impaired growth above 33°C in rich media. However, we(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) forms biofilms in the middle ear during human infection. The biofilm matrix of NTHI contains extracellular DNA. We show that NTHI possesses a potent nuclease, which is a homolog of the thermonuclease of Staphylococcus aureus. Using a biofilm dispersal assay, studies showed a biofilm dispersal pattern in the parent(More)
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