Su-Chun Zhang9
Yan Liu6
M Austin Johnson3
9Su-Chun Zhang
6Yan Liu
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Dysfunction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons, derived from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), is implicated in disorders of learning and memory. Here we present a method for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to a nearly uniform population of NKX2.1(+) MGE-like progenitor cells. After(More)
How a naive human neuroepithelial cell becomes an electrophysiologically active neuron remains unknown. Here, we describe the early physiological development of neurons differentiating from naive human embryonic stem (hES) cells. We found that differentiating neuronal cells progressively decrease their resting membrane potential, gain characteristic Na+ and(More)
After brief periods of heightened stimulation, calcium entry through L-type calcium channels leads to activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcription. Many of the details surrounding the mechanism by which L-type calcium channels are privileged in signaling to CREB, to the exclusion of(More)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been differentiated efficiently to neuronal cell types. However, directed differentiation of hPSCs to astrocytes and astroglial subtypes remains elusive. In this study, hPSCs were directed to nearly uniform populations of immature astrocytes (>90% S100β(+) and GFAP(+)) in large quantities. The immature human(More)
In addition to mediating sexual maturation and reproduction through stimulation of classical intracellular receptors that bind DNA and regulate gene expression, estradiol is also thought to influence various brain functions by acting on receptors localized to the neuronal membrane surface. Many intracellular signaling pathways and modulatory proteins are(More)
Whether hESC-derived neurons can fully integrate with and functionally regulate an existing neural network remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that hESC-derived neurons receive unitary postsynaptic currents both in vitro and in vivo and adopt the rhythmic firing behavior of mouse cortical networks via synaptic integration. Optical stimulation of(More)
Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, but the precise molecular mechanisms underlying impaired cognition remain unclear. Elucidation of these mechanisms has been hindered by the lack of a model system that contains full trisomy of chromosome 21 (Ts21) in a human genome that enables normal gene regulation. To(More)
Current methods to examine and regulate the functional integration and plasticity of human ESC (hESC)-derived neurons are cumbersome and technically challenging. Here, we engineered hESCs and their derivatives to express the light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein to overcome these deficiencies. Optogenetic targeting of hESC-derived neurons with ChR2(More)
Exposure to drugs of abuse activates gene expression and protein synthesis that result in long-lasting adaptations in striatal signaling. Therefore, identification of the transcription factors that couple drug exposure to gene expression is of particular importance. Members of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc) family of transcription factors(More)
Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide(More)