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After brief periods of heightened stimulation, calcium entry through L-type calcium channels leads to activation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CRE-dependent transcription. Many of the details surrounding the mechanism by which L-type calcium channels are privileged in signaling to CREB, to the exclusion of(More)
For the promise of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to be realized, it is necessary to ask if and how efficiently they may be differentiated to functional cells of various lineages. Here, we have directly compared the neural-differentiation capacity of human iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have shown that human iPSCs use the same(More)
In addition to mediating sexual maturation and reproduction through stimulation of classical intracellular receptors that bind DNA and regulate gene expression, estradiol is also thought to influence various brain functions by acting on receptors localized to the neuronal membrane surface. Many intracellular signaling pathways and modulatory proteins are(More)
How a naive human neuroepithelial cell becomes an electrophysiologically active neuron remains unknown. Here, we describe the early physiological development of neurons differentiating from naive human embryonic stem (hES) cells. We found that differentiating neuronal cells progressively decrease their resting membrane potential, gain characteristic Na+ and(More)
Dysfunction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons, derived from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), is implicated in disorders of learning and memory. Here we present a method for differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to a nearly uniform population of NKX2.1(+) MGE-like progenitor cells. After(More)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been differentiated efficiently to neuronal cell types. However, directed differentiation of hPSCs to astrocytes and astroglial subtypes remains elusive. In this study, hPSCs were directed to nearly uniform populations of immature astrocytes (>90% S100β(+) and GFAP(+)) in large quantities. The immature human(More)
Whether hESC-derived neurons can fully integrate with and functionally regulate an existing neural network remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that hESC-derived neurons receive unitary postsynaptic currents both in vitro and in vivo and adopt the rhythmic firing behavior of mouse cortical networks via synaptic integration. Optical stimulation of(More)
Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for vertebrate neural induction, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) may affect neural induction through phosphorylation at the linker region of Smad1, thus regulating BMP signaling. Here we show that human embryonic stem cells efficiently convert to neuroepithelial cells in the absence(More)
Current methods to examine and regulate the functional integration and plasticity of human ESC (hESC)-derived neurons are cumbersome and technically challenging. Here, we engineered hESCs and their derivatives to express the light-gated channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein to overcome these deficiencies. Optogenetic targeting of hESC-derived neurons with ChR2(More)
Massive neuronal loss is a key pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that neuroinflammation, cell autonomous to microglia, is capable of inducing neuronal cell cycle events (CCEs), which are toxic for terminally differentiated neurons. First, oligomeric amyloid-beta peptide(More)