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The human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, infects millions of people throughout south-east Asia and is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma, or cancer of the bile ducts. The mechanisms by which chronic infection with O. viverrini results in cholangiocarcinogenesis are multi-factorial, but one such mechanism is the secretion of parasite proteins with(More)
Hookworms are blood-feeding intestinal parasites of mammalian hosts and are one of the major human ailments affecting approximately 600 million people worldwide. These parasites form an intimate association with the host and are able to avoid vigorous immune responses in many ways including skewing of the response phenotype to promote parasite survival and(More)
Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CAA, bile-duct cancer). Here we review the pathogenesis of(More)
The ability of the mammalian blood fluke Schistosoma japonicum to survive in the inhospitable environment of the mammalian bloodstream can be attributed, at least in part, to its host-exposed outer surface, called the tegument. The tegument is a dynamic organ and is involved in nutrition, immune evasion and modulation, excretion, osmoregulation and signal(More)
Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR; Laos). Currently, more than 600 million people are at risk of infection with these fish-borne trematodes and/or their close relatives. Opisthorchiasis has been studied extensively in Thailand, where about 8(More)
Cyclotides are peptides from plants of the Rubiaceae and Violaceae families that have the unusual characteristic of a macrocylic backbone. They are further characterized by their incorporation of a cystine knot in which two disulfides, along with the intervening backbone residues, form a ring through which a third disulfide is threaded. The cyclotides have(More)
Opisthorchis viverrini is considered among the most important of the food-borne trematodes due to its strong association with advanced periductal fibrosis and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). We investigated the relationship between plasma levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 and the risk of developing advanced fibrosis and bile duct cancer from chronic(More)
The cyclotides are a family of small disulfide rich proteins that have a cyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot formed by three conserved disulfide bonds. The combination of these two structural motifs contributes to the exceptional chemical, thermal and enzymatic stability of the cyclotides, which retain bioactivity after boiling. They were initially(More)
Differential transcription in Ascaris suum was investigated using a genomic-bioinformatic approach. A cDNA archive enriched for molecules in the infective third-stage larva (L3) of A. suum was constructed by suppressive-subtractive hybridization (SSH), and a subset of cDNAs from 3075 clones subjected to microarray analysis using cDNA probes derived from RNA(More)
CyBase is a curated database and information source for backbone-cyclized proteins. The database incorporates naturally occurring cyclic proteins as well as synthetic derivatives, grafted analogues and acyclic permutants. The database provides a centralized repository of information on all aspects of cyclic protein biology and addresses issues pertaining to(More)