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The behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulants such as amphetamine (AMPH) arise from their ability to elicit increases in extracellular dopamine (DA). These AMPH-induced increases are achieved by DA transporter (DAT)-mediated transmitter efflux. Recently, we have shown that AMPH self-administration is reduced in rats that have been depleted of insulin(More)
Excitatory amino acid transmission within mesocorticolimbic brain pathways is thought to play an important role in behavioural sensitization to psychomotor stimulants. The current studies evaluated a time course of the effects of cocaine on extracellular glutamate levels within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following increasing periods of withdrawal(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the development of behavioral sensitization, which is the progressive enhancement of locomotor activity that occurs with repeated administration of psychostimulants. Previous data suggest that mPFC dopamine (DA) transmission may be attenuated in cocaine-sensitized animals, but the onset and duration(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) uptake into mesocortical neurons may be regulated through mechanisms that are markedly different from those observed in nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens systems. The current studies were conducted to develop a rapid and sensitive DA uptake assay in crude synaptosomes prepared from the medial prefrontal cortex(More)
Previous data suggest that cocaine-induced dopamine (DA) transmission within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) undergoes time-dependent changes during withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration. The current studies assessed two potential mechanisms that may underlie this neuroadaptation. One set of experiments examined alterations in DA clearance in(More)
Toluene is a commonly abused solvent found in many industrial and commercial products. The neurobiological effects of toluene remain unclear, but many of them, like those of ethanol, may be mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors. Chronic ethanol administration has been shown to alter levels of specific subunits for GABA type A(More)
The parkinsonian symptoms and increased Mn accumulation in dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the basal ganglia implicate impaired dopamine signaling in the neurotoxic effects of chronic manganese overexposure. Using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we mapped brain responses to acute amphetamine(More)
The dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) is a major target for abused drugs and a key regulator of extracellular DA. A rapidly growing literature implicates insulin as an important regulator of DAT function. We showed previously that amphetamine (AMPH)-evoked DA release is markedly impaired in rats depleted of insulin with the diabetogenic agent streptozotocin(More)
CONCLUSION: Dorsal bridge plate fixation of distal radius fractures restores preoperative physiologic measures of the radius, ulna, and carpus. No significant carpal trans-location occurred during distal bridge plate fixation to the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. While additional studies are needed, fixation to the 2nd metacarpal is preferred as it does not(More)
BACKGROUND Reports of tuberculosis involving ≥4 contiguous spinal levels are rare. Surgery is often required in this population for neurological decompression and stabilization. These patients appear to be particularly predisposed to complications that include incomplete recovery of neurological function after decompression as well as post-treatment(More)