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In the dorsal striatum, there are two major populations of medium spiny projection neurons. One population is positive for dynorphin mRNA (DYN+), and these cells project preferentially to the substantia nigra, forming the so-called 'direct pathway'. A second population is positive for enkephalin mRNA (ENK+), and these cells influence the substantia nigra(More)
A central premise of a number of theories of addiction is that discrete environmental stimuli repeatedly paired with drugs of abuse acquire incentive salience as a result of Pavlovian learning. There is, however, no unequivocal evidence supporting this assumption. Thus, we employed a Pavlovian conditioning procedure known to imbue non-drug reinforcers with(More)
In the search for strategies to treat schizophrenia, attention has focused on enhancing NMDA receptor function. In vitro experiments show that metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGluR5) activation enhances NMDA receptor activity, and in vivo experiments indicate that mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) are effective in preclinical assays measuring(More)
We reported previously that environmental novelty enhances the acute psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine, its ability to induce behavioral sensitization, and its ability to induce c-fos mRNA in the striatum and other structures, relative to when amphetamine is given in the home cage. The purpose of the present experiment was 2-fold: to determine(More)
Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 9 (PDE9) has been reported to enhance rodent cognitive function and may represent a potential novel approach to improving cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. PF-04447943, (6-[(3S,4S)-4-methyl-1-(pyrimidin-2-ylmethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl]-1-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)-1,5-dihydro-4H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-one), a(More)
Orexin is a key neurotransmitter of central arousal and reward circuits in the CNS. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX1R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX2R) with partially overlapping brain distributions. Genetic and pharmacological studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could provide therapeutic benefit for insomnia and other(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is traditionally thought of as part of a system involved in motor control but recent evidence suggests that it may also play a role in other psychological processes. Here we examined the effects of STN lesions on two measures of impulsivity and found that STN lesions increased 'impulsive action' (produced behavioral(More)
Repeated exposure to psychostimulant drugs produces long-lasting changes in dendritic structure, presumably reflecting a reorganization in patterns of synaptic connectivity, in brain regions that mediate the psychomotor activating and incentive motivational effects of these drugs, including the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex. However, repeated(More)
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is a novel target for the treatment of schizophrenia that may address multiple symptomatic domains associated with this disorder. PDE10A is highly expressed in the brain and functions to metabolically inactivate the important second messengers cAMP and cGMP. Here we describe effects of a potent and orally bioavailable PDE10A(More)
Multiple studies indicate that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction underlies some of the deficits associated with schizophrenia. One approach for improving NMDA receptor function is to enhance occupancy of the glycine modulatory site on the NMDA receptor by increasing the availability of the endogenous coagonists D-serine. Here, we(More)