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Toxin A and B, the major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile, are the causative agents of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis. In cultured cell lines their potent cytotoxicity results from their ability to induce disaggregation of the microfilament cytoskeleton. Toxin B acts on the low-molecular-mass GTPase RhoA, which is involved in the(More)
The actin cytoskeleton is regulated by GTP-hydrolysing proteins, the Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches in diverse signal-transduction processes. Various bacterial toxins can inactivate Rho GTPases by ADP-ribosylation or glucosylation. Previous research has identified Rho proteins as putative targets for Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing(More)
In this paper, we present a novel stereo algorithm that combines the strengths of region-based stereo and dynamic programming on a tree approaches. Instead of formulating an image as individual scan-lines or as a pixel tree, a new region tree structure, which is built as a minimum spanning tree on the adjacency-graph of an over-segmented image, is used for(More)
Recently, Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) was shown to activate the low-molecular-mass GTPase RhoA by deamidation of Gln63, thereby inhibiting intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated GTPase activities (G. Schmidt, P. Sehr, M. Wilm, J. Selzer, M. Mann, and K. Aktories, Nature 387:725-729, 1997; G. Flatau, E. Lemichez,(More)
This paper presents a backward disparity-based rendering algorithm, which runs at real-time speed on programmable graphics hardware. The algorithm requires only a handful of image samples of the scene and estimated noisy disparity maps, whereas most existing techniques need either dense samples or accurate depth information. To color a given pixel in the(More)
The family of the large clostridial cytotoxins, encompassing Clostridium difficile toxins A and B as well as the lethal and hemorrhagic toxins from Clostridium sordellii, monoglucosylate the Rho GTPases by transferring a glucose moiety from the cosubstrate UDP-glucose. Here we present a new detoxification procedure to block the enzyme activity by treatment(More)
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