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Transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is interrupted by pauses that play diverse regulatory roles. Although individual pauses have been studied in vitro, the determinants of pauses in vivo and their distribution throughout the bacterial genome remain unknown. Using nascent transcript sequencing, we identified a 16-nucleotide consensus pause sequence in(More)
The trafficking patterns of the bacterial regulators of transcript elongation sigma(70), rho, NusA, and NusG on genes in vivo and the explanation for promoter-proximal peaks of RNA polymerase (RNAP) are unknown. Genome-wide, E. coli ChIP-chip revealed distinct association patterns of regulators as RNAP transcribes away from promoters (rho first, then NusA,(More)
Essential gene functions underpin the core reactions required for cell viability, but their contributions and relationships are poorly studied in vivo. Using CRISPR interference, we created knockdowns of every essential gene in Bacillus subtilis and probed their phenotypes. Our high-confidence essential gene network, established using chemical genomics,(More)
The process of transcription termination is essential to proper expression of bacterial genes and, in many cases, to the regulation of bacterial gene expression. Two types of bacterial transcriptional terminators are known to control gene expression. Intrinsic terminators dissociate transcription complexes without the assistance of auxiliary factors.(More)
Despite the prevalence of antisense transcripts in bacterial transcriptomes, little is known about how their synthesis is controlled. We report that a major function of the Escherichia coli termination factor Rho and its cofactor, NusG, is suppression of ubiquitous antisense transcription genome-wide. Rho binds C-rich unstructured nascent RNA (high C/G(More)
The transcription termination factor Rho is a global regulator of RNA polymerase (RNAP). Although individual Rho-dependent terminators have been studied extensively, less is known about the sites of RNAP regulation by Rho on a genome-wide scale. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarrays (ChIP-chip), we examined changes in the distribution of(More)
In this review we briefly describe the development of CRISPR tools for genome editing and control of transcription in bacteria. We focus on the Type II CRISPR/Cas9 system, provide specific examples for use of the system, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of CRISPR versus other techniques. We suggest potential strategies for combining CRISPR(More)
The molecular mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and tolerance in bacteria, although important for biotechnology and bioenergy applications, remain incompletely understood. Genetic studies have identified potential cellular targets for ethanol and have revealed multiple mechanisms of tolerance, but it remains difficult to separate the direct and indirect(More)
High-throughput functional genomic technologies are accelerating progress in understanding the diversity of bacterial life and in developing a systems-level understanding of model bacterial organisms. Here we highlight progress in deep-sequencing-based functional genomics, show how whole genome sequencing is enabling phenotyping in organisms recalcitrant to(More)
The integrity of the bacterial cell envelope is essential to sustain life by countering the high turgor pressure of the cell and providing a barrier against chemical insults. In Bacillus subtilis, synthesis of both peptidoglycan and wall teichoic acids requires a common C55 lipid carrier, undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate (UPP), to ferry precursors across the(More)