Jason M. Mackenzie

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Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-alphabeta receptor and STAT-1, and was associated(More)
The subcellular location of the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2B, and NS3 in Vero cells infected with the flavivirus Kunjin was investigated using indirect immunofluorescence and cryoimmunoelectron microscopy with monospecific antibodies. Comparisons were also made by dual immunolabelling using antibodies to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), the putative(More)
Picornavirus RNA replication requires the formation of replication complexes (RCs) consisting of virus-induced vesicles associated with viral nonstructural proteins and RNA. Brefeldin A (BFA) has been shown to strongly inhibit RNA replication of poliovirus but not of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Here, we demonstrate that the replication of(More)
Although many workers have investigated the maturation and processing of the flavivirus nonstructural glycoprotein NS1 in infected cells, these studies have provided little insight into a possible function for NS1. In this study we investigated the subcellular localization of NS1 both by immunofluorescence and cryo-immuno electron microscopy of infected(More)
Complex membrane structures induced by West Nile virus (WNV), an enveloped RNA virus, are required for efficient viral replication. How these membranes are induced and how they facilitate the viral life cycle are unknown. We show that WNV modulates host cell cholesterol homeostasis by upregulating cholesterol biosynthesis and redistributing cholesterol to(More)
In a previous study on the replication of Kunjin virus using immunoelectron microscopy (E. G. Westaway, J. M. Mackenzie, M. T. Kenney, M. K. Jones, and A. A. Khromykh, 1997, J. Virol. 71, 6650-6661), NS1 and NS3 were found associated with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) within vesicle packets (VP) in infected Vero cells, suggesting that these induced membrane(More)
A common feature associated with the replication of most RNA viruses is the formation of a unique membrane environment encapsulating the viral replication complex. For their part, flaviviruses are no exception, whereupon infection causes a dramatic rearrangement and induction of unique membrane structures within the cytoplasm of infected cells. These(More)
For intracellular survival it is imperative that viruses have the capacity to manipulate various cellular responses, including metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is induced by various external and internal stimuli, including the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our previous studies(More)
The cytoplasmic replication of positive-sense RNA viruses is associated with a dramatic rearrangement of host cellular membranes. These virus-induced changes result in the induction of vesicular structures that envelop the virus replication complex (RC). In this study, we have extended our previous observations on the intracellular location of West Nile(More)
Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is expressed on the surface of infected cells and is a target of human antibody responses to dengue virus infection. We show here that dengue virus uses the cellular glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage pathway to express a GPI-anchored form of NS1 and that GPI anchoring imparts a capacity for signal(More)