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Most animals can distinguish between small quantities (less than four) innately. Many animals can also distinguish between larger quantities after extensive training. However, the adaptive significance of numerical discriminations in wild animals is almost completely unknown. We conducted a series of experiments to test whether a food-hoarding songbird, the(More)
Epinephrine injection is an effective, simple, and economical method of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding peptic ulcers. We measured catecholamine levels in 18 patients with actively bleeding ulcers (8 gastric ulcers and 10 duodenal ulcers) treated by endoscopic injection. Injection of epinephrine (1:10,000 IU) was given until bleeding from the ulcers(More)
OBJECTIVE Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been found in sera of 76% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly in rheumatoid factor (RF) positive patients, with a specificity of 96%. We evaluated the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and assessed the possibility of(More)
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous arthritides hallmarked by elevated concentrations of circulating immune complexes. In this study, the circulating immune complex proteome was examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are overexpressed in patients with an aggressive, and at times destructive, disease(More)
The production of autoreactive antibodies from self-reactive B cells results in the formation of immune complexes that deposit in tissue and fix complement, contributing to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Earlier mouse models emphasize the importance of autoreactive antibodies formed against "self" proteins that serve as a source for T(More)
Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence(More)
Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations were measured in 10 consecutive patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Surgery was preceded by nasal packing with 5 ml 2% cocaine solution, followed by infiltration with 1:80,000 adrenaline and 2% lignocaine. All patients showed a marked rise in plasma adrenaline concentration within 4(More)
Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured after vasoconstrictor solutions were administered either by instillation (Moffett's method) or by submucosal infiltration in twenty patients undergoing elective nasal surgery. Following infiltration with 4.4 ml of 1:80,000 adrenaline and 2% lignocaine, plasma adrenaline concentrations increased by 44.3 times(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients a biomarker panel of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), IgM rheumatoid factor (RF), IgG RF, and IgA RF and compare to the presence of joint erosions (JE),(More)
The hemodynamic effects of methohexital, at infusion rates of 60-65 and 120 micrograms/kg/min with concomitant inhalation of 67% nitrous oxide in oxygen, have been studied during spontaneous and controlled ventilation in 8 patients. Under most of the conditions studied methohexital infusion anesthesia was associated with lower arterial pressure (-13% to(More)