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Many cellular signaling processes are initiated by dimerization or oligomerization of membrane proteins. However, since the spatial scale of these interactions is below the diffraction limit of the light microscope, the dynamics of these interactions have been difficult to study on living cells. We have developed a novel high-speed hyperspectral microscope(More)
Single molecule localization based super-resolution imaging techniques require repeated localization of many single emitters. We describe a method that uses the maximum likelihood estimator to localize multiple emitters simultaneously within a single, two-dimensional fitting sub-region, yielding an order of magnitude improvement in the tolerance of the(More)
In the distal tubule, Na(+) resorption is mediated by epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC). Hormones such as aldosterone, vasopressin, and insulin modulate ENaC membrane targeting, assembly, and/or kinetic activity, thereby regulating salt and water homeostasis. Insulin binds to a receptor on the basal membrane to initiate a signal transduction cascade that(More)
Although multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy has improved the depth at which useful fluorescence images can be collected in biological tissues, the reach of multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy is nonetheless limited by tissue scattering and spherical aberration. Scattering can be reduced in fixed samples by mounting in a medium whose(More)
Multiphoton fluorescence excitation microscopy is almost invariably conducted with samples whose refractive index differ from that of the objective immersion medium, conditions that cause spherical aberration. Due to the quadratic nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation, spherical aberration is expected to profoundly affect the depth dependence of(More)
Advances in microscopy now enable researchers to easily acquire multi-channel three-dimensional (3D) images and 3D time series (4D). However, processing, analyzing, and displaying this data can often be difficult and time- consuming. We discuss some of the software tools and techniques that are available to accomplish these tasks.
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