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We cloned two genes, KIN1 and KIN2, encoding kinesin-II homologues from the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila and constructed strains lacking either KIN1 or KIN2 or both genes. Cells with a single disruption of either gene showed partly overlapping sets of defects in cell growth, motility, ciliary assembly, and thermoresistance. Deletion of both genes(More)
We explore how listeners perceive distinct pieces of phonetic information that were conveyed in parallel by the fundamental frequency (fO) contour of spoken and sung vowels. In a first experiment, we measured differences in fO of /i/ and /a/ vowels spoken and sung by unselected undergraduate participants. Differences in "intrinsic fO" (with fO of /i/ higher(More)
In response to Ca2+ entry, several prominent brain nerve terminal phosphoproteins undergo dephosphorylation, but the relation between dephosphorylation and neurotransmitter release is unknown. Using the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A (CsA) and L-683,590 (FK-520) to inhibit specifically the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, we(More)
The transcription factor G box-binding factor (GBF) is required for the developmental switch between aggregative and postaggregative gene expression, cell-type differentiation, and morphogenesis. We show that constitutive expression of GBF allows ectopic expression of postaggregative genes, but only in response to exogenous cAMP. GBF activation requires the(More)
Virtually all motile eukaryotic cilia and flagella have a '9+2' axoneme in which nine doublet microtubules surround two singlet microtubules. Associated with the central pair of microtubules are protein complexes that form at least seven biochemically and structurally distinct central pair projections. Analysis of mutants lacking specific projections has(More)
The nuclear genome of the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains genes for a dozen hemoglobins of the truncated lineage. Of those, THB1 is known to be expressed, but the product and its function have not yet been characterized. We present mutagenesis, optical, and nuclear magnetic resonance data for the recombinant protein and show that at pH(More)
The relation between childhood behavior disorders (CBD), attentional difficulties (ADD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASP) was examined in a clinical population of alcoholics and polysubstance abusers. Polysubstance abusers reported increased CBD symptomatology, increased attentional problems, a higher rate of ASP, and a greater number of both(More)
Three experiments were designed to investigate how listeners to coarticulated speech use the acoustic speech signal during a vowel to extract information about a forthcoming oral or nasal consonant. A first experiment showed that listeners use evidence of nasalization in a vowel as information for a forthcoming nasal consonant. A second and third experiment(More)
The BBSome is a complex of seven proteins, including BBS4, that is cycled through cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT). Previous work has shown that the membrane-associated signaling protein phospholipase D (PLD) accumulates abnormally in cilia of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii bbs mutants. Here we show that PLD is a component of wild-type cilia but is(More)
We cloned a Tetrahymena thermophila gene, IFT52, encoding a homolog of the Chlamydomonas intraflagellar transport protein, IFT52. Disruption of IFT52 led to loss of cilia and incomplete cytokinesis, a phenotype indistinguishable from that of mutants lacking kinesin-II, a known ciliary assembly transporter. The cytokinesis failures seem to result from lack(More)