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People use 3 heuristics (fluency, generation, and resemblance) in remembering a prior experience of a stimulus. The authors demonstrate that people use the same 3 heuristics in classifying a stimulus as a member of a category and interpret this as support for the idea that people have a unitary memory system that operates by the same fundamental principles(More)
Processing of a probe stimulus can be affected either positively or negatively by presenting a related stimulus immediately before it. According to structural accounts, such effects occur because processing of the prime activates or inhibits the mental representation of the probe before it is presented. In contrast, transfer-appropriate processing accounts(More)
In two experiments, participants were presented with successive presentations of animal names (e.g., GORILLA, WHALE)--a prime display followed by a probe display. In response to each display, participants judged either the typical habitat or the relative size of those animals, repeating the same task in response to both displays on half of the experimental(More)
Michotte's theory of ampliation suggests that causal relationships are perceived by objects animated under appropriate spatiotemporal conditions. We extend the theory of ampliation and propose that the immediate perception of complex causal relations is also dependent on a set of structural and temporal rules. We designed animated representations, based on(More)
In two experiments, the authors investigate whether switch-cost asymmetries that are often observed in studies of task switching (e.g., Allport, Styles, & Hsieh, 1994) can be best explained by reference to an inhibitory mechanism or episodic memory principles. In Experiment 1, the authors replicated the basic finding, observing the highest switching costs(More)
Reflections on the past are often accompanied by an experience of nostalgia, or positive sentiments about some prior stage of one's life. In the current study, we provide evidence suggesting that nostalgic experiences may occur because of positive feelings that accompany the act of successful recall, rather than reflecting the true nature of the past. In a(More)
A handful of studies have revealed that withholding a response to a sound causes impaired responding to that sound when subsequently presented (Buchner & Steffens, 2001; Mondor, Leboe, & Leboe, 2005). In the present study, we investigated whether a switch in the location of a repeated sound might represent an additional source of this auditory negative(More)
The importance of selecting between a target and a distractor in producing auditory negative priming was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with a prime pair of sounds, followed by a probe pair of sounds. For each pair, listeners were to identify the sound presented to the left ear. Under these conditions,(More)
Causal relationships are inherent in the world around us and are intrinsic to our decision making process. Michotte's <i>Theory of Ampliation</i> suggests that the perception of causality can be enhanced under appropriate spatiotemporal conditions. We extended this theory and proposed that simple static and animated designs, based on structural and temporal(More)
Tipper et al. (1991) reported that negative priming is eliminated when a low-probability event separates presentation of the prime display from the probe display. This finding is perfectly consistent with at least three of the major accounts of negative priming. However, each of these accounts can reasonably be argued to make different predictions regarding(More)