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Comparisons of five morphological characters, 12 enzyme electrophoresis profiles, and Wolbachia pipientis infection rates were used to characterize populations of members of the Culex pipiens L. complex in California and South Africa. In South Africa, male phallosome DV/D ratio, male maxillary palp index, branching of siphonal seta 1a, the enzyme locus(More)
Insecticide resistance and absence of clinical cures or vaccines for many vector-borne diseases has stimulated interest in using genetically modified arthropod vectors for disease control. Current transgenic strategies focus on vector susceptibility to pathogen infection, which is an inefficient target for pathogen transmission interference. Manipulation of(More)
Paratransgenesis, the genetic manipulation of insect symbiotic microorganisms, is being considered as a potential method to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The feasibility of paratransgenic malaria control has been hampered by the lack of candidate symbiotic microorganisms for the major vector Anopheles gambiae. In other systems,(More)
Wolbachia pipientis is an obligate intracellular bacterium found in a wide range of invertebrate taxa. While over ecological timescales Wolbachia infections are maintained by strict maternal inheritance, horizontal transfer events are common over evolutionary time. To be horizontally transferred between organisms, Wolbachia bacteria must pass through and(More)
Over evolutionary time, Wolbachia has been repeatedly transferred between host species contributing to the widespread distribution of the symbiont in arthropods. For novel infections to be maintained, Wolbachia must infect the female germ line after being acquired by horizontal transfer. Although mechanistic examples of horizontal transfer exist, there is a(More)
Before maternally inherited bacterial symbionts like Wolbachia, which cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI; reduced hatch rate) when infected males mate with uninfected females, can be used in a program to control vector-borne diseases it is essential to understand their dynamics of infection in natural arthropod vector populations. Our study had four(More)
Novel strategies are required to control mosquitoes and the pathogens they transmit. One attractive approach involves maternally inherited endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. After artificial infection with Wolbachia, many mosquitoes become refractory to infection and transmission of diverse pathogens. We evaluated the effects of Wolbachia (wAlbB strain) on(More)
Mosquito species, members of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are the major vectors of human pathogens including protozoa (Plasmodium sp.), filariae and of a variety of viruses (causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile). There is lack of efficient methods and tools to treat many of the diseases caused by these major human pathogens, since(More)
The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are(More)
Population genetic structure of the West Nile Virus vector Culex tarsalis was investigated in 5 states in the western United States using 5 microsatellite loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) gene. ND4 sequence analysis revealed a lack of isolation by distance, panmixia across all(More)