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We present a large-scale approach to investigate the functional consequences of sequence variation in a protein. The approach entails the display of hundreds of thousands of protein variants, moderate selection for activity and high-throughput DNA sequencing to quantify the performance of each variant. Using this strategy, we tracked the performance of(More)
Background: Protein Kinase A (PKA) is confined to subcellular compartments by A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs) Results: A structure-based phage directed evolution strategy has yielded modified type II PKA regulatory subunits with AKAP-selective binding properties Conclusion: Engineered R Select proteins preferentially target particular AKAP-PKA(More)
CD8(+) T cells are a key focus of vaccine development efforts for HIV. However, there is no clear consensus as to which of the nine HIV proteins should be used for vaccination. The early proteins Tat, Rev, and Nef may be better CD8(+) T cell targets than the late-expressed structural proteins Gag, Pol, and Env. In this study, we show that Gag-specific(More)
BACKGROUND It is generally accepted that CD8+ T cell responses play an important role in control of immunodeficiency virus replication. The association of HLA-B27 and -B57 with control of viremia supports this conclusion. However, specific correlates of viral control in individuals expressing these alleles have been difficult to define. We recently reported(More)
PKA is retained within distinct subcellular environments by the association of its regulatory type II (RII) subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Conventional reagents that universally disrupt PKA anchoring are patterned after a conserved AKAP motif. We introduce a phage selection procedure that exploits high-resolution structural information(More)
Deep mutational scanning marries selection for protein function to high-throughput DNA sequencing in order to quantify the activity of variants of a protein on a massive scale. First, an appropriate selection system for the protein function of interest is identified and validated. Second, a library of variants is created, introduced into the selection(More)
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