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Ori enting is one of the most primitive functions of living things. Even the leaves of a plant orient towards sunshine; the roots towards moisture. In more complex organisms more complex systems have evolved to orient the various receptors reflexively either towards or away from signal sources in the environment and to prepare the organism to select from a(More)
When humans attempt to perform two tasks at once, execution of the first task usually leads to postponement of the second one. This task delay is thought to result from a bottleneck occurring at a central, amodal stage of information processing that precludes two response selection or decision-making operations from being concurrently executed. Using(More)
Despite the impressive complexity and processing power of the human brain, it is severely capacity limited. Behavioral research has highlighted three major bottlenecks of information processing that can cripple our ability to consciously perceive, hold in mind, and act upon the visual world, illustrated by the attentional blink (AB), visual short-term(More)
BACKGROUND The speed and accuracy of decision-making have a well-known trading relationship: hasty decisions are more prone to errors while careful, accurate judgments take more time. Despite the pervasiveness of this speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) in decision-making, its neural basis is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using functional(More)
McCormick (1997) concluded that peripheral cues presented below a threshold of awareness could nevertheless attract attention because they facilitated target processing near the cue shortly after its presentation. Yet, whereas an exogenous shift of attention typically exhibits a biphasic pattern (initial facilitation followed by inhibition of return [IOR]),(More)
Two sensorimotor tasks that share neither sensory nor motor modality can interfere with one another when they are performed simultaneously. A possible cause for this interference is the recruitment of common brain regions by these two tasks, thereby creating a bottleneck of information processing. This hypothesis predicts that such "bottleneck" regions(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the performance disadvantage for targets presented at an exogenously cued location, relative to an uncued location, at relatively long cue-target onset asynchronies. In this experiment, we investigated the influence on IOR of a nonresponding effector (i.e., the index finger of the nonresponding hand) placed on a response(More)
Spatial responding is influenced by the degree of correspondence between the stimulus-response (S-R) code activated by the target's task-irrelevant location and the S-R code activated by the target's non-spatial, task-relevant feature. A generally accepted explanation of this "Simon effect," named after its discoverer, is that there is a natural tendency to(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) most often describes the finding of increased response times to cued as compared to uncued targets in the standard covert orienting paradigm. A perennial question in the IOR literature centers on whether the effect of IOR is on motoric/decision-making processes (output-based IOR), attentional/perceptual processes (input-based(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to slower responding to a stimulus that appears in the same rather than a different location as that of a preceding stimulus. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between IOR and stop signal inhibition. Participants were presented with two stimuli (S1 and S2) on each trial. On half of the trials (go(More)