Probabilistic arithmetic, where the <i>i<sup>th</sup></i> output bit of addition and multiplication is correct with a probability <i>p<sub>i</sub></i> , is shown to be a vehicle for realizing extremely energy-efficient, embedded computing. Specifically, probabilistic adders and multipliers, realized using elements such as gates that are in turn… (More)
We develop a theoretical foundation to characterize a novel methodology for low energy and high performance dsp for embedded computing. Computing elements are operated at a frequency higher than that permitted by a conventionally correct circuit design, enabling a trade-off between <i>error that is deliberately introduced, and the energy consumed</i>.… (More)
iii Foreword It is a pleasure for me to introduce the third occasional paper published by the Financial Stability Institute. The purpose of these papers is to create an awareness of, and provide information on, topics of interest to financial sector supervisors. For this third paper in our series, the Financial Stability Institute is pleased that a member… (More)
Highly scaled CMOS devices in the nanoscale regime would inevitably exhibit statistical or probabilistic behavior. Such behavior is caused by process variations, and other perturbations such as noise. Current circuit design method-ologies, which depend on the existence of " deterministic " devices that behave consistently in temporal and spatial contexts do… (More)
Issues and developments in loan loss provisioning: the case of Asia 1 In the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s, many jurisdictions in Asia strengthened their approaches to loan loss provisioning, including the adoption of discretionary measures. This has contributed to stronger banking systems in the region. Loan loss provisions 2… (More)
Background. The objective of our study was to ascertain racial/ethnic disparities in Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) clinicopathologic features and survival outcomes based on various tumor characteristics and treatment modalities. Method. SEER database identified invasive NSCLC cases from 2004 to 2010. Variables included… (More)
1 The authors would like to thank Bob McCauley, Josef Tošovský and Shinichi Yoshikuni for their many useful comments and suggestions during the various stages of the study. Comments from Masanori Ishizuka and … are gratefully acknowledged.