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Structures of the prokaryotic K(+) channel, KcsA, highlight the role of the selectivity filter carbonyls from the GYG signature sequence in determining a highly selective pore, but channels displaying this sequence vary widely in their cation selectivity. Furthermore, variable selectivity can be found within the same channel during a process called C-type(More)
A simple approach that allows cost-effective automated purification of recombinant proteins in levels sufficient for functional characterization or structural studies is described. Studies with four human stem cell proteins, an engineered version of green fluorescent protein, and other proteins are included. The method combines an expression vector (pVP62K)(More)
The ribonuclease inhibitor protein (RI) binds to members of the bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) superfamily with an affinity in the femtomolar range. Here, we report on structural and energetic aspects of the interaction between human RI (hRI) and human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1). The structure of the crystalline hRI x RNase 1 complex was(More)
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in hepatocytes and secreted through the biliary tract into the small intestine, where they aid in absorption of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins. Through a process known as enterohepatic recirculation, more than 90% of secreted bile acids are then retrieved from the intestine and returned to the liver for(More)
Potassium channels are involved in a tremendously diverse range of physiological applications requiring distinctly different functional properties. Not surprisingly, the amino acid sequences for these proteins are diverse as well, except for the region that has been ordained the "selectivity filter". The goal of this review is to examine our current(More)
Understanding how ion channels open and close their pores is crucial for comprehending their physiological roles. We used intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers, electrophysiology and X-ray crystallography to locate the voltage-dependent gate in MthK potassium channels from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Blockers bind in an aqueous cavity between(More)
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) is conserved in all eukaryotes and introduces the first double bond into saturated fatty acyl-CoAs. Because the monounsaturated products of SCD are key precursors of membrane phospholipids, cholesterol esters and triglycerides, SCD is pivotal in fatty acid metabolism. Humans have two SCD homologues (SCD1 and SCD5), while mice(More)
The 2.07 A resolution X-ray crystal structure of a soluble Rieske-type ferredoxin from Mus musculus encoded by the gene Mm.266515 is reported. Although they are present as covalent domains in eukaryotic membrane oxidase complexes, soluble Rieske-type ferredoxins have not previously been observed in eukaryotes. The overall structure of the mouse Rieske-type(More)
The bacterial potassium channel KcsA is gated open by the binding of protons to amino acids on the intracellular side of the channel. We have identified, via channel mutagenesis and x-ray crystallography, two pH-sensing amino acids and a set of nearby residues involved in molecular interactions that influence gating. We found that the minimal mutation of(More)
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